Afshin A, Sur PJ, Fay KA, Cornaby L, Ferrara G, Salama JS, et al. Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2017. Lancet. 2019;393(10184):1958–72.
Leeming ER, Louca P, Gibson R, Menni C, Spector TD, Le Roy CI. The complexities of the diet-microbiome relationship: advances and perspectives. Genome Med. 2021;13(1):10.
Dao MC, Subar AF, Warthon-Medina M, Cade JE, Burrows T, Golley RK, et al. Dietary assessment toolkits: an overview. Public Health Nutr. 2019;22(3):404–18.
De Keyzer W, Huybrechts I, De Vriendt V, Vandevijvere S, Slimani N, Van Oyen H, et al. Repeated 24-hour recalls versus dietary records for estimating nutrient intakes in a national food consumption survey. Food Nutr Res. 2011;55. https://doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v55i0.7307.
Services UDoHH. 24-hour dietary recall (24HR) at a glance. Available from: https://dietassessmentprimer.cancer.gov/profiles/recall/. Accessed 21 Aug 2021.
Warthon-Medina M, Hooson J, Hancock N, Alwan NA, Ness A, Wark PA, et al. Development of Nutritools, an interactive dietary assessment tools website, for use in health research. Lancet. 2017;390:S94.
Food Record National Cancer Institute: National Institutes of Health; Available from: https://dietassessmentprimer.cancer.gov/. Accessed 21 Aug 2021.
Albar SA, Alwan NA, Evans CEL, Cade JE. Does food portion size differ by level of household income? A cross-sectional study using the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008–11. Lancet. 2015;386:S18.
Rosell MS, Hellénius ML, de Faire UH, Johansson GK. Associations between diet and the metabolic syndrome vary with the validity of dietary intake data. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78(1):84–90.
Fang S, Zhu F, Boushey CJ, Delp EJ. The use of co-occurrence patterns in single image based food portion estimation. IEEE Glob Conf Signal Inf Process. 2017;2017:462–6.
Barabási A-L, Menichetti G, Loscalzo J. The unmapped chemical complexity of our diet. Nat Food. 2020;1(1):33–7.
Almoosawi S, Vingeliene S, Gachon F, Voortman T, Palla L, Johnston JD, et al. Chronotype: implications for epidemiologic studies on chrono-nutrition and cardiometabolic health. Adv Nutr. 2019;10(1):30–42.
Sievert K, Hussain SM, Page MJ, Wang Y, Hughes HJ, Malek M, et al. Effect of breakfast on weight and energy intake: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2019;364:l42.
Gabel K, Hoddy KK, Haggerty N, Song J, Kroeger CM, Trepanowski JF, et al. Effects of 8-hour time restricted feeding on body weight and metabolic disease risk factors in obese adults: a pilot study. Nutr Healthy Aging. 2018;4(4):345–53.
Conway R, Robertson C, Dennis B, Stamler J, Elliott P. Standardised coding of diet records: experiences from INTERMAP UK. Br J Nutr. 2004;91(5):765–71.
Subar AF, Freedman LS, Tooze JA, Kirkpatrick SI, Boushey C, Neuhouser ML, et al. Addressing current criticism regarding the value of self-report dietary data. J Nutr. 2015;145(12):2639–45.
Lachat C, Hawwash D, Ocké MC, Berg C, Forsum E, Hörnell A, et al. Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology-nutritional epidemiology (STROBE-nut): an extension of the STROBE statement. PLoS Med. 2016;13(6):e1002036.
Verdi S, Abbasian G, Bowyer RCE, Lachance G, Yarand D, Christofidou P, et al. Twin family registries worldwide: An important resource for scientific research. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2019;22(6):523-9. https://doi.org/10.1017/thg.2019.65.
van den Berg L, Henneman P, Willems van Dijk K, Delemarre-van de Waal HA, Oostra BA, van Duijn CM, et al. Heritability of dietary food intake patterns. Acta Diabetol. 2013;50(5):721–6.
Frankenfield DC, Muth ER, Rowe WA. The Harris-Benedict studies of human basal metabolism: history and limitations. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998;98(4):439–45.
Teucher B, Skinner J, Skidmore PM, Cassidy A, Fairweather-Tait SJ, Hooper L, et al. Dietary patterns and heritability of food choice in a UK female twin cohort. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2007;10(5):734–48.
Food Standards Agency. McCance & Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods. 6th ed. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry; 2002.
Nelson M, Atkinson M, Meyer J, Great Britain. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, London (GB), Nutritional Epidemiology Group UK. Food Portion Sizes: A User’s Guide to the Photographic Atlas. 1997.
Slimani N, Ferrari P, Ocké M, Welch A, Boeing H, van Liere M, et al. Standardization of the 24-hour diet recall calibration method used in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): general concepts and preliminary results. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000;54(12):900–17.
Goff LM, Huang P, Silva MJ, Bordoli C, Enayat EZ, Molaodi OR, et al. Associations of dietary intake with cardiometabolic risk in a multi-ethnic cohort: a longitudinal analysis of the Determinants of Adolescence, now young Adults, Social well-being and Health (DASH) study. Br J Nutr. 2019;121(9):1069–79.
Package ‘igraph’. Network analysis and visualization. 2019. Available from: https://igraph.org/r/doc/igraph.pdf. Accessed 21 Aug 2021.
Gaal S, Kerr MA, Ward M, McNulty H, Livingstone MBE. Breakfast consumption in the UK: patterns, nutrient intake and diet quality. A study from the International Breakfast Research Initiative Group. Nutrients. 2018;10(8):999.
Oksanen J, Blanchet FG, Friendly M, Kindt R, Legendre P, McGlinn D, Minchin PR, O’Hara RB, Simpson GL, Solymos P, Stevens MHH, Szoecs E, Wagner H. Package ‘vegan’. Community Ecology Package. 2020. Available from: https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/vegan/vegan.pdf.
Willett WC, Howe GR, Kushi LH. Adjustment for total energy intake in epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(4 Suppl):1220S–8S discussion 9S-31S.
Package ‘lme4’. Linear mixed-effects models using ‘Eigen’ and S4. 2020. Available from: https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/lme4/lme4.pdf. Accessed 21 Aug 2021.
Holst K, Scheike, T. Package ‘mets’. Analysis of multivariate event times. 2020. Available from: https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/mets/mets.pdf.
Overview of the UK population: August 2019 [press release]. 2019.
Digital N. Health survey for England 2018: data tables. 2018.
Kroeger CM, Garza C, Lynch CJ, Myers E, Rowe S, Schneeman BO, et al. Scientific rigor and credibility in the nutrition research landscape. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018;107(3):484–94.
Guan VX, Probst YC, Neale EP, Tapsell LC. Evaluation of the dietary intake data coding process in a clinical setting: implications for research practice. PLoS One. 2019;14(8):e0221047.
NDNS: results from years 7 and 8 (combined). Public Health England and Food Standards Agency. 2018. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/ndns-results-from-years-7-and-8-combined. Accessed 21 Aug 2021.
Kolar AS, Patterson RE, White E, Neuhouser ML, Frank LL, Standley J, et al. A practical method for collecting 3-day food records in a large cohort. Epidemiology. 2005;16(4):579–83.
Naska A, Lagiou A, Lagiou P. Dietary assessment methods in epidemiological research: current state of the art and future prospects. F1000Res. 2017;6:926.
Centre NCBR. Estimated food diaries. Available from: https://dapa-toolkit.mrc.ac.uk/diet/subjective-methods/estimated-food-diaries. Accessed 21 Aug 2021.
Mazzeo T, Roncoroni L, Lombardo V, Tomba C, Elli L, Sieri S, et al. Evaluation of a modified Italian European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition food frequency questionnaire for individuals with celiac disease. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016;116(11):1810–6.
Bingham SA, Gill C, Welch A, Cassidy A, Runswick SA, Oakes S, et al. Validation of dietary assessment methods in the UK arm of EPIC using weighed records, and 24-hour urinary nitrogen and potassium and serum vitamin C and carotenoids as biomarkers. Int J Epidemiol. 1997;26(Suppl 1):S137–51.
O'Neil CE, Nicklas TA, Fulgoni VL. Nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity parameters in breakfast patterns compared with no breakfast in adults: national health and nutrition examination survey 2001–2008. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014;114(12, Supplement):S27–43.
Song WO, Chun OK, Obayashi S, Cho S, Chung CE. Is consumption of breakfast associated with body mass index in US adults? J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105(9):1373–82.
Hoddy KK, Marlatt KL, Çetinkaya H, Ravussin E. Intermittent fasting and metabolic health: from religious fast to time-restricted feeding. Obesity. 2020;28(S1):S29–37.
Martens CR, Rossman MJ, Mazzo MR, Jankowski LR, Nagy EE, Denman BA, et al. Short-term time-restricted feeding is safe and feasible in non-obese healthy midlife and older adults. Geroscience. 2020;42(2):667–86.
Wilkinson MJ, Manoogian ENC, Zadourian A, Lo H, Fakhouri S, Shoghi A, et al. Ten-hour time-restricted eating reduces weight, blood pressure, and atherogenic lipids in patients with metabolic syndrome. Cell Metab. 2020;31(1):92–104.e5.
Jelenkovic A, Sund R, Hur Y-M, Yokoyama Y, Hjelmborg JB, Möller S, et al. Genetic and environmental influences on height from infancy to early adulthood: an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts. Sci Rep. 2016;6(1):28496.
Hilker R, Helenius D, Fagerlund B, Skytthe A, Christensen K, Werge TM, et al. Heritability of schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum based on the Nationwide Danish Twin Register. Biol Psychiatry. 2018;83(6):492–8.
Cole JB, Florez JC, Hirschhorn JN. Comprehensive genomic analysis of dietary habits in UK Biobank identifies hundreds of genetic associations. Nat Commun. 2020;11(1):1467.
Dashti HS, Merino J, Lane JM, Song Y, Smith CE, Tanaka T, et al. Genome-wide association study of breakfast skipping links clock regulation with food timing. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019;110(2):473–84.
Willett W. An overview of issues related to the correction of non-differential exposure measurement error in epidemiologic studies. Stat Med. 1989;8(9):1031–40.