- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Effect of commercial breakfast fibre cereals compared with corn flakes on postprandial blood glucose, gastric emptying and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized blinded crossover trial
© Hlebowicz et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2007
Received: 14 May 2007
Accepted: 17 September 2007
Published: 17 September 2007
Dietary fibre food intake is related to a reduced risk of developing diabetes mellitus. However, the mechanism of this effect is still not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of commercial fibre cereals on the rate of gastric emptying, postprandial glucose response and satiety in healthy subjects.
Gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured by standardized real time ultrasonography. Twelve healthy subjects were assessed using a randomized crossover blinded trial. The subjects were examined after an 8 hour fast and after assessment of normal fasting blood glucose level. Satiety scores were estimated and blood glucose measurements were taken before and at 0, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 min after the end of the meal. GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 min after ingestion of sour milk with corn flakes (GER1), cereal bran flakes (GER2) or wholemeal oat flakes (GER3).
The median value was, respectively, 42% for GER1, 33 % for GER2 and 51% for GER3. The difference between the GER after ingestion of bran flakes compared to wholemeal oat flakes was statistically significant (p = 0.023). The postprandial delta blood glucose level was statistically significantly lower at 40 min (p = 0.045) and 120 min (p = 0.023) after the cereal bran flakes meal. There was no statistical significance between the areas under the curve (AUCs) of the cereals as far as blood glucose and satiety were concerned.
The result of this study demonstrates that the intake of either bran flakes or wholemeal oat flakes has no effect on the total postprandial blood glucose response or satiety when compared to corn flakes. However, the study does show that the intake of cereal bran flakes slows the GER when compared to oat flakes and corn flakes, probably due to a higher fibre content. Since these products do not differ in terms of glucose response and satiety on healthy subjects, they should be considered equivalent in this respect.
In Sweden and worldwide the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing rapidly. To prevent the development of diabetes mellitus, the American Diabetes Association recommends a reduction in caloric intake and increased consumption of dietary fibre and food containing whole grain . An increased intake of fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of diabetes [2, 3]. Whether low-glycemic-index food in fact prevents diabetes mellitus is still unclear [2, 4–7]. However, a low-glycemic-index diet that reduces postprandial hyperglycemia is recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) to control glycemia in patients with diabetes [8, 9].
Fibre has been shown to delay gastric emptying rate, reduce the glycemic response and delay the return of hunger in healthy subjects . It has been assumed that fibre fermented in the colon by the bacterial flora releases short chain fatty acids, thus lowering postprandial glucose levels [11–14]. Moreover, this fermentation has shown to result in a suppression of the hepatic glucose production and serum-free fatty acids . Colonic fermentation, measured by breath hydrogen test, has been observed – after a meal consisting of ingestible carbohydrates – to reduce the insulin and glucose response at the following meal. This effect is called a second meal effect. . However, another study showed that meals with what was assumed to be fermentable carbohydrates did not improve glucose or insulin response at the second meal . A recently published study shows that an increased 3-day intake of insoluble fibre in obese subjects improved whole-body insulin sensitivity .
The β-glucan effect is not fully understood. Products enriched with β-glucan have been shown to reduce postprandial glucose and insulinemic responses in healthy subjects [19–21] and in type 2 diabetes patients [22–24]. Reduced postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations after consumption of viscous types of fibre have been discussed to be caused by delayed mouth-to caecum transit and delayed absorption of glucose in the small intestine . The viscosity of oat gum, an oat extract composed of β-glucan, has been shown to cause a reduction in plasma glucose and insulin levels . However, lower postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations have not been shown to be caused by the fermentation of β-glucan in the colon . Another mechanism discussed is that β-glucan delays gastric emptying.
Healthy subjects are recommended to consume products with fibre to prevent the development of diabetes mellitus. Also, patients with diabetes consume commercial products with fibre and low glycemic food to control the blood glucose levels. This study was designed to determine whether there is a delay in gastric emptying in healthy subjects, thus affecting postprandial blood glucose levels and satiety, after consumption of commercially popular fibre cereals.
Nutrient composition of the test product portions.
Frebaco Wholemeal Oatflakes
Kellogg's All-Bran Regular Flakes
Total energy (kcal)
Total protein (g)
Total fat (g)
Total Carbohydrate (g)
Total Fibre (g)
GER was estimated using a previously described standardised ultrasound method . The sonographic examination was performed using two different ultrasound machines (Siemens Acuson Sequoa 512 and Aloka Prof. Sound) with an abdominal transducer multi-MHz. For every single calculation of GER the same machine was used. The measurements of the gastric antrum were performed by the same radiologist who was blinded with regard to the meals. At each observation of the gastric antrum the abdominal aorta and the left lobe of the liver were used as internal landmarks. The subjects were examined lying down, but they were in upright position between examinations. Measurements were taken 15 and 90 min after the end of meal ingestion. Gastric emptying was expressed as the percentage change of the antral cross-sectional area from 15 to 90 min. At each examination three measurements of the longitudinal (d1) and anteroposterior (d2) diameters were performed and mean values were used to calculate the cross-section area of the gastric antrum using the following formula:
Antrum area = π× r2 = π× d1/2 × d2/2 = π× d1 × d2/4
The gastric emptying (GER) was calculated using the following formula:
GER = [1- (Antrum area 90 min/Antrum area 15 min)] × 100
Finger-prick capillary samples were taken before and at 0, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 min after the end of the meal to measure glucose. Blood glucose concentrations were measured with HemoCue Glucose system (HemoCue AB, Ängelholm, Sweden). A validated satiety score numerical scale was used according to the method of Haber et al on the basis of a scoring system with grades from -10 cm (extreme hunger) to 10 cm (extreme satiety) . Satiety score was estimated before the meal and at 0, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 min after the end of the meal.
All subjects provided written informed consent. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee at Lund University and performed according to the Helsinki Declaration.
Median values with quartiles (q1 to q3) are presented for the antral cross-sectional areas and the GER. Delta values of blood glucose and satiety scores are calculated as changes at 0, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 min after the end of the meal from a fasting value. The AUCs for each subject were determined for the delta blood glucose and satiety (Graph Pad PRISM, version 4, San Diego). The AUCs were calculated above zero. The AUCs values are presented as means ± SEMs. All statistical calculations were performed in SPSS for Windows. Significant differences of GER, gastric antral cross-sectional areas, delta blood glucose and AUCs were evaluated with the Wilcoxon t-test. Values of P < 0.05 were considered significant.
Postprandial blood glucose response
Postprandial blood glucose areas under the curve (AUCs) after ingestion of meals consisting of wholemeal oat flakes, cereal bran flakes or corn flakes in twelve healthy subjects1. Significant differences of postprandial blood glucose AUCs were calculated with the Wilcoxon t-test. There were no significant differences between the AUCs.
Wholemeal Oat Flakes mmol * min/L
Cereal Bran Flakes mmol * min/L
Corn Flakes mmol * min/L
0 – 5 min
0.3 ± 0.1
1.3 ± 0.1
0.3 ± 0.1
0 – 25 min
21.2 ± 2.8
19.3 ± 1.4
19.3 ± 3.4
0 – 45 min
58.9 ± 7.1
53.8 ± 3.9
59.2 ± 10.2
0 – 65 min
83.0 ± 12.4
76.9 ± 7.7
93.8 ± 16.9
0 – 85 min
97.8 ± 16.3
88.7 ± 9.9
116.8 ± 21.8
110.1 ± 18.9
96.0 ± 10.4
124.4 ± 26.4
0 – 125 min
120.6 ± 21.5
106.8 ± 12.9
143.0 ± 26.3
Gastric emptying rate
Satiety areas under the curve (AUCs) after ingestion of meals consisting of wholemeal oat flakes, cereal bran flakes or corn flakes in twelve healthy subjects1. Significant differences of satiety AUCs were calculated with the Wilcoxon t-test. There were no significant differences between the AUCs.
Wholemeal Oat Flakes cm 2
Cereal Bran Flakes cm 2
Corn Flakes cm 2
0 – 5 min
14.0 ± 2.1
16.4 ± 2.4
12.5 ± 2.5
0 – 25 min
128.1 ± 18.7
148.5 ± 19.4
112.9 ± 21.1
0 – 45 min
244.0 ± 34.7
275.6 ± 34.2
206.2 ± 38.0
0 – 65 min
359.8 ± 45.8
386.4 ± 46.9
289.4 ± 52.6
0 – 85 min
459.8 ± 56.6
466.6 ± 56.1
363.5 ± 65.8
542.3 ± 66.1
544.9 ± 64.9
418.1 ± 75.0
0 – 125 min
602.4 ± 74.6
600.8 ± 12.9
454.6 ± 80.1
The results of this study show that the presence of fibre in a semisolid meal does not affect total postprandial blood glucose or satiety responses in healthy subjects, despite the delay in gastric emptying for the product containing the higher amount of fibre (cereal bran flakes). This study was designed to evaluate the effect of commercial cereals on blood glucose, satiety and GER. The postprandial glucose response was reduced at the initial postprandial phase after the cereal bran flakes meal compared to the corn flakes meal. Similar results have previously been presented showing a lower early postprandial blood glucose response after the intake of cereal bran flakes when compared to corn flakes . In the same study it was shown that this lower postprandial blood glucose response was related to a higher initial postprandial plasma insulin response after a meal composed of 119.2 g cereal bran flakes compared to a meal of 60.9 g corn flakes . However, the total postprandial insulin AUC was identical for the two meals and gastric emptying was not measured . It is obvious that healthy subjects have a sufficient insulin response, thus giving a normal blood glucose response. Consequently, we have had similar total postprandial blood glucose AUCs for the products in our study. Moreover, the cereal bran flakes meal had a smaller amount of carbohydrates than that of the corn flakes meal. However, if we had used the same amount of carbohydrates from each cereal brand in our study, we would have had a larger difference in energy, which, in turn, could potentially have influenced the GER results. An increased caloric value of a meal can delay the GER . The cereal bran flakes meal had the lowest total caloric value, 298 kcal, compared to the other meals with 320 kcal, respectively. Still, the difference in GER was only significant between the cereal bran flakes meal and the wholemeal oat flakes, probably due to the higher amount of fibre in the cereal bran flakes meal. Also, the glucose response was reduced at the end of the postprandial phase after the cereal bran flakes meal compared to the wholemeal oat flakes meal (Figure 1), which could be related to the lower GER (Figure 3). However, in patients with type 2 diabetes, oat bran flour containing 9.4 g β-glucan lowered the postprandial glycemia . In the same study on type 2 diabetes patients using oat bran crisps containing 3.0 g β-glucan, the postprandial glycemia was also reduced, although the reduction was only half as large as compared to oat bran flour containing 9.4 g β-glucan . It has previously been shown in type 2 diabetes patients that each gram of β-glucan in food can lower the GI by four GI units . The wholemeal oat flakes meal contained only 0.5 g β-glucan. Probably the amount of β-glucan was too small to affect the blood glucose response. In this study we could not show any significant difference in satiety despite a delayed gastric emptying after the cereal bran flakes meal compared to the wholemeal oat flakes meal. A delay in GER has previously been shown to increase satiety . However, despite a difference in postprandial blood glucose and satiety hormones – such as ghrelin and plasma peptide YY (PYY) – after consumption of oat and wheat fibre, no difference was found with regard to satiety in healthy subjects .
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends a daily intake of 14 g fibre/1.000 kcal and foods with whole grains to prevent diabetes . The intake of total dietary fibre, particularly insoluble and cereal fibre, has been shown to have an inverse association with diabetes type 2 . Insoluble fibre and fibre from fruit, vegetables, or legumes have been shown to be unrelated to diabetes . It is unclear whether low glycemic index food prevents diabetes mellitus. Still, the ADA recommends low glycemic index foods that are rich in fibre . However, the composition of the commercial product should be more important than the fibre content alone. Several studies have shown that there was no difference in postprandial blood glucose response directly after the intake of fibre, whereas a beneficial effect on glucose metabolism was observed on the second meal test due to colonic fermentation [14, 34, 35].
The result of this study demonstrates that the intake of equal amounts of either cereal bran flakes and wholemeal oat flakes has no effect on the total postprandial blood glucose response or satiety when compared to corn flakes. Furthermore, this study shows that the intake of cereal bran flakes slows the GER when compared to wholemeal oat flakes and corn flakes, probably due to a higher content of fibre. Since these products do not differ in terms of glucose response and satiety on healthy subjects, they should be considered equivalent in this respect. However, this study does not exclude a potential difference between the meals with regard to a delayed second meal effect.
- Bantle W-RJ, Albright AL, Aprovian CM, Clark NG, Franz MJ, Hoogwerf BJ, Lichtenstein AH, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD, Wheeler ML: Nutrition recommendations and interventions for Diabetes-2006: a position statement of the American diabetes association. Diabetes care. 2006, 29 (9): 2140-2157. 10.2337/dc06-9914.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Meyer KA, Kushi LH, Jacobs DR, Slavin J, Sellers TA, Folsom AR: Carbohydrates, dietary fibre, and incident type 2 diabetes in older women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000, 71 (4): 921-930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schulze MB, Liu S, Rimm EB, Manson JE, Willett WC, Hu FB: Glycemic index, glycemic load, and dietary fibre intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in younger and middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004, 80 (2): 348-356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Janket SJ, Manson JE, Sesso H, Buring JE, Liu S: A prospective study of sugar intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes Care. 2003, 26 (4): 1008-1015. 10.2337/diacare.26.4.1008.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Salmeron J, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, Spiegelman D, Jenkins DJ, Stampfer MJ, Wing AL, Willett WC: Dietary fibre, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care. 1997, 20 (4): 545-550. 10.2337/diacare.20.4.545.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Colditz GA, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Willett WC, Speizer FE: Diet and risk of clinical diabetes in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992, 55 (5): 1018-1023.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Salmeron J, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Wing AL, Willett WC: Dietary fibre, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. Jama. 1997, 277 (6): 472-477. 10.1001/jama.277.6.472.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lundgren H, Bengtsson C, Blohme G, Isaksson B, Lapidus L, Lenner RA, Saaek A, Winter E: Dietary habits and incidence of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in a population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989, 49 (4): 708-712.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sheard NF, Clark NG, Brand-Miller JC, Franz MJ, Pi-Sunver FX, Mayer-Davis E, Kulkarni K, Geil P: Dietary carbohydrate (amount and type) in the prevention and management of diabetes: a statement by the american diabetes association. Diabetes Care. 2004, 27 (9): 2266-2271. 10.2337/diacare.27.9.2266.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Benini L, Castellani G, Brighenti F, Heaton KW, Brentegani MT, Casiraghi MC, Sembenini C, Pellegrini N, Fioretta A, Minniti G: Gastric emptying of a solid meal is accelerated by the removal of dietary fibre naturally present in food. Gut. 1995, 36 (6): 825-830. 10.1136/gut.36.6.825.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Barry JL, Hoebler C, Macfarlane GT, Macfarlane S, Reed KA, Mortensen PB, Nordgaard I, Rowland IR, Rumney CJ: Estimation of the fermentability of dietary fibre in vitro: a European interlaboratory study. Br J Nutr. 1995, 74 (3): 303-322. 10.1079/BJN19950137.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nyman M, Asp NG, Cummings J, Wiggins H: Fermentation of dietary fibre in the intestinal tract: comparison between man and rat. Br J Nutr. 1986, 55 (3): 487-496. 10.1079/BJN19860056.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Queenan KM, Stewart ML, Smith KN, Thomas W, Fulcher RG, Slavin JL: Concentrated oat β-glucan, a fermentable fibre, lowers serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults in a randomized controlled trail. Nutr J. 2007, 6 (6):Google Scholar
- Weickert MO, Mohlig M, Koebnik C, Holst JJ, Namsolleck P, Ristow M, Osterhoff M, Rochlitz H, Rudovich N, Spranger J, Pfeifeer AF: Impact of cereal fibre on glucose-regulating factors. Diabetologia. 2005, 48 (11): 2343-2353. 10.1007/s00125-005-1941-x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Thorburn A, Muir J, Proietto J: Carbohydrate fermentation decreases hepatic glucose output in healthy subjects. Metabolism. 1993, 42 (6): 780-785. 10.1016/0026-0495(93)90249-N.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brighenti F, Benini L, Del Rio D, Casiraghi C, Pellegrini N, Scazzina F, Jenkins DJ, Vantini I: Colonic fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates contributes to the second-meal effect. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006, 83 (4): 817-822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liljeberg HG, Akerberg AK, Björck IM: Effect of the glycemic index and content of indigestible carbohydrates of cereal-based breakfast meals on glucose tolerance at lunch in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999, 69 (4): 647-55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weickert MO, Mohlig M, Schofl C, Arafat AM, Otto B, Viehoff H, Koebnick C, Kohl A, Spranger J, Pfeiffer AF: Cereal fibre improves whole-body insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese women. Diabetes Care. 2006, 29 (4): 775-780. 10.2337/diacare.29.04.06.dc05-2374.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Casiraghi MC, Garsetti M, Testolin G, Brighenti F: Post-prandial responses to cereal products enriched with barley beta-glucan. J Am Coll Nutr. 2006, 25 (4): 313-320.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Björklund M, van Rees A, Mensink RP, Onning G: Changes in serum lipids and postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations after consumption of beverages with beta-glucans from oats or barley: a randomised dose-controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005, 59 (11): 1272-1281. 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602240.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mäkeläinen H, Anttila H, Sihvonen J, Hietanen RM, Tahvonen R, Salminen E, Mikola M, Sontag-Strohm T: The effect of beta-glucan on the glycemic and insulin index. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007, 61 (6): 779-785. 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602561.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tappy L, Gugolz E, Wursch P: Effects of breakfast cereals containing various amounts of beta-glucan fibres on plasma glucose and insulin responses in NIDDM subjects. Diabetes Care. 1996, 19 (8): 831-834. 10.2337/diacare.19.8.831.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jenkins AL, Jenkins DJ, Zdravkovic U, Wursch P, Vuksan V: Depression of the glycemic index by high levels of beta-glucan fibre in two functional foods tested in type 2 diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002, 56 (7): 622-628. 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601367.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tapola N, Karvonen H, Niskanen L, Mikola M, Sarkkinen E: Glycemic responses of oat bran products in type 2 diabetic patients. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2005, 15 (4): 255-261. 10.1016/j.numecd.2004.09.003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Leeds AR, Gassull MA, Haisman P, Dilawari J, Goff DV, Metz GL, Alberti KG: Dietary fibres, fibre analogues, and glucose tolerance: importance of viscosity. Br Med J. 1978, 1 (6124): 1392-1394.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Wood PJ, Braaten JT, Scott FW, Riedel KD, Wolynetz MS, Collins MW: Effect of dose and modification of viscous properties of oat gum on plasma glucose and insulin following an oral glucose load. Br J Nutr. 1994, 72 (5): 731-743. 10.1079/BJN19940075.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Battilana P, Ornstein K, Minehira K, Schwarz JM, Acheson K, Schneiter P, Burri J, Jequier E, Tappy L: Mechanisms of action of beta-glucan in postprandial glucose metabolism in healthy men. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001, 55 (5): 327-333. 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601160.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Darwiche G, Almér L, Björgell O, Cederholm C, Nilsson P: Measurement of Gastric Emptying by Standardized Real-Time Ultrasonography in Healthy Subjects and Diabetic Patients. Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine. 1999, 18 (10): 673-682.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Haber GB, Heaton KW, Murphy D, Burroughs LF: Depletion and disruption of dietary fibre. Effects on satiety, plasma-glucose, and serum-insulin. Lancet. 1977, 2 (8040): 679-82. 10.1016/S0140-6736(77)90494-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schenk S, Davidson CJ, Zderic TW, Byerley LO, Coyle EF: Different glycemic indexes of breakfast cereals are not due to glucose entry into blood but to glucose removal by tissue. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003, 78 (4): 742-748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Calbet JA, MacLean DA: Role of caloric content on gastric emptying in humans. J Physiol. 1997, 498 (2): 553-559.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bergmann JF, Chassany O, Petit A, Triki R, Caulin C, Segrestaa JM: Correlation between echographic gastric emptying and appetite: influence of psyllium. Gut. 1992, 33 (8): 1042-1043. 10.1136/gut.33.8.1042.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Weickert MO, Spranger J, Holst JJ, Otto B, Koebnick C, Möhlig M, Pfeiffer AF: Wheat-fibre-induced changes of postprandial peptide YY and ghrelin responses are not associated with acute alterations of satiety. Br J Nutr. 2006, 95 (5): 795-798.Google Scholar
- Robertson MD, Currie JM, Morgan LM, Jewell DP, Frayn KN: Prior short-term consumption of resistant starch enhances postprandial insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects. Diabetologia. 2003, 46: 659-665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Granfeldt Y, Wu X, Björk I: Determination of glycaemic index; some methological aspects related to the analysis of carbohydrates load and characteristics of the previous evening meal. Eurp J Clin Nutr. 2006, 60: 104-112. 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602273.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.