- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
An increase of cereal intake as an approach to weight reduction in children is effective only when accompanied by nutrition education: a randomized controlled trial
- Jorge L Rosado1, 2Email author,
- María del R Arellano†1,
- Karina Montemayor†1,
- Olga P García†1 and
- María del C Caamaño†1, 2
© Rosado et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2008
- Received: 23 April 2008
- Accepted: 10 September 2008
- Published: 10 September 2008
The main emphasis of dietary advice for control of obesity has been on reducing dietary fat. Increasing ready to eat cereal (RTEC) consumption could be a strategy to reduce fat intake and increase carbohydrate intake resulting in a diet with lower energy density.
1. To determine if an increase in RTEC intake is an effective strategy to reduce excess body weight and blood lipids in overweight or at risk of overweight children. 2. To determine if a nutrition education program would make a difference on the response to an increase in cereal intake. 3) To determine if increase in RTEC intake alone or with a nutrition education program has an effect on plasma lipid profile.
One hundred and forty seven overweight or at risk of overweight children (6–12 y of age) were assigned to one of four different treatments: a. One serving of 33 ± 7 g of RTEC for breakfast; b. one serving of 33 ± 7 g of RTEC for breakfast and another one for dinner; c. one serving of 33 ± 7 g of RTEC for breakfast and a nutrition education program. d. Non intervention, control group. Anthropometry, body composition, physical activity and blood lipids were measured at baseline, before treatments, and 12 weeks after treatments.
After 12 weeks of intervention only the children that received 33 ± 7 g of RTEC and nutrition education had significantly lower body weight [-1.01 (-1.69, -0.34) ], p < 0.01], lower BMI [-0.95 (-1.71, -0.20), p < 0.01] and lower total body fat [-0.71 (-1.71, 0.28), p < 0.05] compared with the control group [1.19 (0.39, 1.98), 0.01 (-0.38, 0.41), 0.44 (-0.46, 1.35) respectively]. Plasma triglycerides and VLDL were significantly reduced [-20.74 (-36.44, -5.05), -3.78 (-6.91, -0.64) respectively, p < 0.05] and HDL increased significantly [6.61 (2.15, 11.08), p < 0.01] only in this treatment group. The groups that received 1 or 2 doses of RTEC alone were not significantly different to the control group.
A strategy to increase RTEC consumption, as a source of carbohydrate, to reduce obesity is effective only when accompanied by nutrition education. The need for education could be extrapolated to other strategies intended for treatment of obesity.
Australian New Zealand Clincial Trial Registry. Request no: ACTRN12608000025336
- Physical Activity
- Nutrition Education
- Overweight Child
- Nutrition Education Program
- Adjusted Change
Recent estimates suggest that up to 1.7 billion people worldwide are overweight or obese, making it one of the biggest health threats facing world's population. Obesity lies at the other end of malnutrition scale and is becoming a public health problem in developing countries as well. Over 115 million people suffer from obesity related problems in developing countries . In Brazil and Colombia for example, 36 and 41% of the population respectively is overweight. Prevalence of obesity in Mexico was unknown until recently [2, 3]: about 26% of children between 5 and 12 years of age and 35% of the adult women are obese. The high prevalence of obesity in the Mexican population must be contributing to the increment in chronic diseases that has been observed in recent years . Health officials and academia have recognized the need for urgent preventive measures to stop this accelerating trend.
Several studies have identified an excessive intake of dietary fat as a major mechanism for increasing the amount of body fat in humans and experimental animals. Diets with a high fat content are energy dense . Thus, reduction of dietary fat as a treatment for obesity has been a widely used approach. A number of trials with low-fat diets have demonstrated the effectiveness of such recommendation [6–8]. In addition to weight loss, low fat diets help maintain low cholesterol and triglyceride levels in blood, reduce leptin concentration, increase adiponectin and reduce insulin resistance, and decrease cardiovascular and diabetes risk [9, 10].
An increase in the carbohydrate to fat ratio is associated with the reduction in energy density of the diet . A dietary recommendation to increase cereal consumption is a possible approach to improve the carbohydrate to fat ratio. Studies in adult men and women have demonstrated that an increase in dietary carbohydrates from ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) or other foods, even in the lack of an advice to reduce fat, is a potentially effective approach for weight reduction [5, 12, 13].
The objectives of the study were: 1) To determine if an increase in cereal intake by consuming RTEC, among overweight or at risk of overweight children is an effective treatment to reduce excess body fat, 2) To determine if the inclusion of a nutrition education program in addition to an increase in carbohydrate intake has an effect on body weight and body fat, and 3) To determine if an increase in RTEC intake alone or with a nutrition education program has an effect on plasma lipid profile.
Subjects and place of study
Children were eligible if they had a BMI for age > 85% and were attending elementary school with an age range from 6 to 12 years. In order to detect children as being overweight or at risk of overweight, 6 elementary schools of the city of Queretaro were randomly selected and invited to participate; 5 schools accepted participation. Parents of all children from 1st to 6th grade were invited to a session where details of the study were explained, including benefits and potential risks of child participation. Parents of 905 children accepted voluntarily to participate in an initial screening to detect overweight or at risk of overweight children. Weight and height were determined in all children at their schools. Children were weighed without sweater or jacket and without shoes using an electronic scale (SECA, Erecta 844, Hamburg, Germany) to the nearest 1 g. Height was measured using portable stadimeters (SECA, Bodymeter 208, Germany). Children with a BMI-for-age above the 85th percentile were enrolled in the experimental study. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) references, a child at risk of overweight is defined as having a BMI-for-age between the 85th and 95th percentile of the CDC growth charts . Overweight is defined as a BMI-for age at or above the 95th percentile (14).
Of the 905 children initially screened, 17% had a BMI-for-age percentile between 85% and 95%, and 18% had a BMI-for-age percentile equal or above 95%. Of these overweight and at risk of overweight children, 256 accepted to participate in a longitudinal controlled study, from which 178 children completed the study. Lost to follow-up was mainly due to the children's lack of compliance to the study protocol. The sample size of 178 subjects that completed the study accomplishes the expected sample size with an alpha error of 0.05 and a beta error of 0.2, to detect a BMI expected difference of 1 kg/m2, with an expected standard deviation of BMI change of 1 kg/m2. Blood samples were taken from children if parents agreed to the procedure. Of the 178 subjects that completed the study, a blood sample was obtained from 129 children. Children included in the study were healthy volunteers with no apparent disease apart from being overweight.
Experimental groups and treatments
Children were randomly assigned to one of four different treatments. They were stratified into 4 groups with similar age, height and BMI percentile and same gender, in order to create groups with similar baseline characteristics. A randomization of treatments was done to each group with a computer generating random number list. The randomization was done at a central office by someone who did not have contact with the children or their parents. Children in group 1 consumed one serving of 33 ± 7 g of RTEC (Kellogg's de Mexico, Querétaro, Mexico) at breakfast. Children in group 2 consumed two servings of 33 ± 7 g of RTEC, one at breakfast and another serving at dinner. Children in group 3 consumed one serving of 33 ± 7 grams of RTEC and in addition, both children and mothers received a nutrition education guide that contained recommendations for healthy eating. Children in group 4 were involved in the study and had no treatment. Follow up in all groups was for 12 weeks.
To allow for variety in the diet, children consumed from 4 different types of RTEC: a corn based RTEC (Corn Flakes®, Kellogg Company Mexico), a pre-sweetened corn based RTEC (Zucaritas®, Kellogg Company Mexico), a pre-sweetened corn based, chocolate flavored RTEC (Choco Zucaritas®, Kellogg Company Mexico), and a pre-sweetened rice based, chocolate flavored RTEC (ChocoKrispis®, Kellogg Company Mexico). These RTEC were chosen because of the high consumption among children. The children were allowed to choose from the 3 pre-sweetened RTEC only for 3 days in one week and were not allowed to repeat. The remaining four days children consumed from corn-based cereal only. The mean nutrient composition of RTEC per serving was as follows: 165 Kcal (712 KJ), 5.8 g of protein, 0.5 g total fat, and 35 g of carbohydrates. The RTEC was consumed with 250 mL of cold skimmed milk in a bowl with a spoon. Compliance was recorded by weekly interviews to the parents.
Summary of the nutrition education guide used in one treatment group
Recommendations concerning the family:
• Parents are responsible for teaching their children healthy food choices in and outside their home.
• Lunch must be a simple, appetizing, easy to carry, economical and nutritious meal.
• When eating together, the rest of the family should eat the same type of foods, but the serving size may vary individually.
• Mealtimes at home should be calmed and trouble-free; this is not a good time for arguments about the child's diet.
• The amount of foods eaten at home is influenced by family preferences. Watch out what is bought and stored at home. Avoid storing foods that the child may crave for such as deserts, soft drinks, candies, potato chips and other calorie dense foods.
Recommendations concerning the child
• The child must continue with his/her usual physical activity.
• Food preferences should be considered when planning the child's meals.
• A child must always have breakfast before school, or during the weekend.
• Consume only skimmed milk, low-fat cheese and low-fat yogurt.
• Eat the regular foods prepared at home, following the general recommendations given in the sample menu.
• If there is a mealtime out of home, child may be allowed to eat the foods available, but the amount of food consumed should be less than usual.
• Avoid beverages with a high content of sugar; instead drink natural water.
• The child should replace snacks with low-sugar beverages or water and may have a calorie dense snack of his/her choice occasionally (once a week).
Foods to be included in the child's diet:
• Whole grain breads, pasta, rice, cereal.
• Turkey ham, turkey sausages, chicken, tuna, eggs and beans
• Low-fat milk, cheese, yogurt
• Lettuce, tomato, carrots
• Any kind of fruit
Foods to be avoided in the child's diet:
• Foods with a high sugar content such as soft drinks, candy, commercial fruit juices, and chocolate.
• Foods with a high fat content, such as cream, desserts made from whole milk, peanut butter, fried food, pork and lamb meat and their products such as bacon and pork sausage.
Example of a lunch:
• A sandwich with one item (low fat cheese, turkey ham, or tuna fish in water) + 1 fruit or vegetable + natural water or one glass of a low-sugar beverage and the rest of beverages as natural water.
Children in all four groups were evaluated for anthropometry, body composition, physical activity, and blood lipids at the beginning of the study before treatments and after 12 weeks with each respective treatment.
Anthropometry, body composition and blood lipids
Anthropometric measures included weight and height and were done as described above. Standardization in height and weight measures was done following standard procedures recommended by the World Health Organization . Each child was evaluated by the same observer at basal and post-treatment. Body composition analysis was carried out by bioelectrical impedance using a conductance measurement apparatus (BIA 101, RJL Systems, Clinton TWP, MI). The apparatus was calibrated everyday before measures were carried out. Children were laid down in a bed placed in a quiet room inside the school, apart from where the rest of the measurements took place. Electrodes were placed on the left foot and right hand, after cleaning the area with alcohol. Children were asked to remain calm and not to move for the duration of evaluation.
A fasting blood sample was drawn from every child at basal and after 12 weeks of treatment. Children in all schools were asked to attend at 8 in the morning. Mother and child were instructed that the child should not have any food after 9 p.m. on the night before. Both mother and child were asked before the blood sample was taken if the child had fasted. Blood samples were centrifuged at 1800–2000 rpm during 15 minutes and plasma was stored at -20°C until analysis. Biochemical analysis in plasma samples included triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol and were done using a commercial kit (Sera-Pak Kit Bayer Diagnostics, France).
Physical activity evaluation
Physical activity of all children was evaluated by asking the child's mother to fill out a questionnaire at the beginning of the study and 12 weeks after treatment began. The questionnaire asked to recall different physical activities normally carried out by children throughout the week as well as their duration. This questionnaire has been validated and applied in previous studies . The outcome of the questionnaires showed the time spent performing different activities during the week. Time of each type of activity was transformed into Metabolic Equivalent units (Mets/hr), which is the ratio of the metabolic rate during the physical activity to the resting metabolic rate, according to the compendium of physical activities from the Prevention Research Center of the University of South Carolina . For data analysis, physical activities were grouped into intense, moderate and low depending on Mets/hr spent as follows: Low = 0 to 3 Mets/hr, Moderate = 3 to 6 Mets/hr and Intense = 6 or more Mets/hr.
Percent fat and fat free mass were calculated from the reactance and resistance values obtained in the bioimpedance analysis using the equation suggested by Kottler et al. (1996) . LDL and VLDL were calculated from total cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides concentrations . BMI and BMI percentile were calculated in Epi-Info v.3.3.2. Treatment effect was measured as the change on anthropometric and biochemical determinations within initial and final measures and mean change among groups comparison. Partial measurements were analyzed to confirm validity of initial and final measurements. Within effects were carried out with a paired T-Test. Between groups effect in lipids and anthropometry changes was observed with a one-way ANOVA to compare unadjusted changes and with a univariate general linear model adjusted for baseline value, gender and interactions in case they resulted significant and the school random effect. Physical activity analysis was evaluated as the final evaluation controlled for baseline value, gender and the school random effect. Treatments' pairwise comparisons were tested with the least significant difference test . Additionally, an analysis of variance and a chi square test was carried out to compare baseline age, anthropometry and gender of subjects included in the analysis versus children that had missing data and were not included in the analysis. Statistical analyses were performed using the software SPSS, V.9.0 (Chicago, IL).
Characteristics of subjects in experimental groups at baseline *†
1 dose of RTEC
2 doses of RTEC
1 dose of RTEC + Nutrition education guide
110.3 ± 19.7
109.3 ± 18.9
107.8 ± 18.8
110.1 ± 18.9
47.0 ± 12.9
47.7 ± 12.7
46.4 ± 12.2
48.2 ± 11.7
139.2 ± 12.1
139.01 ± 9.4
138.2 ± 10.8
139.8 ± 11.4
23.7 ± 3.3
24.3 ± 3.7
23.8 ± 3.1
24.3 ± 3.1
Height for age (Z-score)
0.4 ± 0.8
0.5 ± 0.8
0.5 ± 0.9
0.6 ± 1.1
Weight for age (Z-score)
2.1 ± 1.0
2.4 ± 1.4
2.2 ± 1.0
2.4 ± 1.0
Weight for height (Z-score)
2.9 ± 1.1
3.0 ± 1.0
2.8 ± 0.7
3.0 ± 0.9
Total Cholesterol (mg/dL)
141.3 ± 31.3
140.6 ± 32.9
127.4 ± 23.3
138.8 ± 32.9
108.6 ± 45.2
132.2 ± 46.4
130.2 ± 47.7
125.1 ± 45.1
Effect of treatments on anthropometry and body composition in the different groups *
1 dose of RTEC
2 doses of RTEC
1 dose of RTEC + Nutrition education guide
47.0 (43.0, 51.1)
47.7 (43.6, 51.8)
47.0 (43.2, 50.8)
48.2 (44.04, 52.3)
47.92 (43.9, 52.0)
48.6 (44.6, 52.7)
46.08 (42.5, 49.7)
49.30 (45.2, 53.4)
0.9 (0.4, 1.4) ‡
0.9 (0.3, 1.5) ‡
-0.9 (-2.2, 0.5) §
1.2 (0.8, 1.5) ‡
Adjusted change †
1.03 (0.3, 1.7)
0.6 (-0.1, 1.3)
-1.01 (-1.7, -0.3) **
1.2 (0.4, 2.0)
23.7 (22.7, 24.8)
24.3 (23.1, 25.5)
24.1 (23.1, 25.2)
24.3 (23.2, 25.4)
23.8 (22.6, 24.9)
24.1 (22.8, 25.3)
23.2 (22.3, 24.1)
24.3 (23.2, 25.4)
0.04 (-0.3, 0.4)
-0.2 (-0.5, 0.1)
-1.0 (-1.7, -0.2) ‡, §
0.02 (-0.1, 0.2)
Adjusted change †
0.1 (-0.3, 0.4)
-0.3 (-0.7, 0.1)
-0.9 (-1.2, -0.5) **
0.01 (-0.4, 0.4)
Total Body Fat (%)
23.6 (20.6, 26.6)
25.9 (22.8, 28.9)
24.4 (21.6, 27.3)
27.1 (23.9, 30.2)
24.1 (20.9, 27.2)
25.5 (22.5, 28.5)
23.7 (20.7, 26.7)
27.5 (24.5, 30.5)
0.5 (-0.1, 1.1)
-0.4 (-1.0, 0.3)
-0.7 (-1.7, 0.3) §
0.4 (-0.4, 1.2)
Adjusted change †
0.4 (-0.4, 1.1)
-0.5 (-1.3, 0.3)
-0.8 (-1.6, -0.04) ††
0.4 (-0.5, 1.4)
Effect of treatments on plasma lipids in the different groups *
1 dose of RTEC
2 doses of RTEC
1 dose of RTEC + Nutrition education guide
143.3 (132.6, 154.1)
141.3 (130.0, 152.7)
128.6 (121.1, 136.1)
134.6 (123.3, 145.8)
149.6 (138.8, 160.3)
147.5 (135.7, 159.4)
136.8 (128.0, 145.6)
141.3 (132.0, 150.7)
6.2 (-7.3, 19.7)
6.2 (-8.0, 20.4)
8.2 (-3.4, 19.8)
6.7 (-5.8, 19.3)
Adjusted change †
14.7 (4.5, 24.9)
14.2 (4.3, 24.1)
9.5 (-0.7, 19.6)
6.2 (-4.7, 17.1)
109.5 (92.9, 126.1)
134.2 (118.1, 150.2)
129.5 (113.4, 145.6)
121.9 (106.6, 137.1)
134.5 (109.7, 159.2)
119.4 (102.9, 135.8)
108.7 (92.8, 124.6)
121.6 (102.2, 141.0)
25.0 (-3.6, 53.6)
-14.8 (-31.8, 2.2)
-20.7 (-36.4, -5.1) ‡
-0.2 (-19.3, 18.8)
Adjusted change †
13.5 (-6.5, 33.4)
-10.3 (-29.0, 8.4)
-18.1 (-36.7, 0.6)
-4.3 (-24.6, 16.0)
48.4 (43.9, 52.8)
48.1 (44.3, 51.8)
43.1 (39.3, 47.0)
47.5 (42.4, 52.6)
47.0 (42.4, 51.6)
48.5 (44.8, 52.2)
49.7 (46.5, 53.0)
44.8 (40.5, 49.1)
-1.4 (-7.3, 4.6)
0.4 (-4.6, 5.5)
6.6 (2.2, 11.1) ‡, §
-2.7 (-6.5, 1.1)
Adjusted change †
-2.2 (-5.7, 1.4)
1.0 (-2.4, 4.3)
1.7 (-1.7, 5.1)
-3.0 (-6.7, 0.7)
122.6 (111.0, 134.3)
123.6 (112.2, 135.1)
114.1 (104.9, 123.4)
116.7 (106.7, 126.8)
137.1 (123.5, 150.6)
125.2 (112.9, 137.5)
112.3 (101.3, 123.2)
125.4 (114.4, 136.4)
14.4 (1.0, 27.8) ‡
1.6 (-11.8, 14.9)
-1.9 (-15.7, 12.0)
8.7 (-5.0, 22.3)
Adjusted change †
19.3 (7.3, 31.3)
9.2 (-2.3, 20.7)
1.8 (-10.0, 13.5)
8.0 (-4.8, 20.8)
21.9 (18.6, 25.2)
26.8 (23.6, 30.0)
25.7 (22.6, 28.9)
24.4 (21.3, 27.4)
26.9 (22.0, 31.9)
23.9 (20.6, 27.2)
21.9 (18.8, 25.1)
24.3 (20.5, 28.2)
5.0 (-0.7, 10.7)
-3.0 (-6.4, 0.5)
-3.8 (-6.9, -0.6) ‡
-0.04 (-3.9, 3.8)
Adjusted change †
2.6 (-1.4, 6.6)
-2.0 (-5.8, 1.7)
-3.3 (-7.0, 0.4)
-0.8 (-4.9, 3.2)
Changes ± standard deviation (SD) in intense, moderate and low physical activities in Mets/week were the following: for with 1 dose of RTEC, 13.4 ± 41.3, 4.3 ± 12.7, 3 ± 18, for group with 2 doses of RTEC 2.4 ± 61.5, -2.2 ± 17.1, 2.6 ± 31.9, for with 1 dose of RTEC + education guide -3.6 ± 52.4, -0.2 ± 16, -5 ± 19 and for the control group 4.6 ± 31.6, -1.1 ± 9.9, 6.7 ± 18.5. Changes were not statistically different neither between basal and final evaluations nor among experimental groups. When adjusting model for gender and school, boys increased their intense physical activity while girls decreased it resulting in a significant difference between boys and girls (8.8 ± 60.2 vs 12.6 ± 85.7).
Although there are many environmental factors promoting excess energy intake, consumption of high fat diets increases the likelihood of obesity and the risk of obesity is lower in individuals consuming low fat diets. A review of clinical trials and animal studies  suggests that the Public Health recommendation to lower dietary fat intake continues to be an appropriate measure to reduce energy intake and obesity. Fat compared with carbohydrates and proteins, increases the energy density of foods and diets.. Thus, a logical suggestion has been to replace fat with carbohydrate and therefore, decrease the energy density of the diet .
The present study showed that the increase in RTEC consumption as a source of carbohydrate in children was effective in reducing body weight and body fat only when a nutrition education guide was included as part of the treatment. The inclusion of either one or two servings of RTEC in the diet without nutrition education was not effective in reducing body fat and did not cause any significant change in body weight compared with the control no-treatment group. Kirk et al  found a significant reduction of 2 kg body weight in 29 adults that replaced one meal with a serving of RTEC everyday during 4 weeks as a high carbohydrate regime. Differences between our study and this study include the difference in the population studied but more important is that the study by Kirk et al  did not include a control group. This makes its conclusion about the effectiveness of increasing carbohydrate consumption as an effective approach to treat obesity weak. Rodearmel et al.  studied the impact of increasing 2 serving of RTEC/day and increasing daily steps in a 13-week intervention study as a family-based approach to prevent obesity and found significant differences in children's BMI-for-age and body fat between the experimental and the control groups. The control group in this study did not receive any intervention, therefore, the effect of the RTEC seen cannot be separated from the increase in physical activity in the children.
Our study agrees with other studies [5, 23] in the fact that an increase in RTEC consumption as a source of carbohydrates was shown to be an effective strategy to lose weight in obese children but our study suggests that only when it is given with nutrition education. The change in body weight in the group receiving education and RTEC was accompanied with a reduction in total body fat. These changes did not occur in the groups that received one or two servings of RTEC and that the mother and child did not receive any nutrition education guide. These findings suggest that in our population a nutrition education guideline might be necessary for the beneficial effects of increasing carbohydrate consumption.
The importance of education programs in the treatment of obesity has been known for a number of years, but only recently it has been suggested that nutrition education should be part of any successful strategy to reduce obesity in children [24–29], adolescents [27–30] and in adults [31, 32]. Also, nutrition education has proven to be effective in improving nutritional status of individuals in different populations at risk. Studies of nutrition education programs that are continuous, specific, focused and targeted to vulnerable populations have been successful in improving nutritional status [33–37]. Our study suggests that providing a nutrition education guide makes dietary changes, such as increase in carbohydrate consumption, more effective, and that a lack of an adequate nutritional education can cause nutritional strategies to fail.
It is important to consider that since we did not include a group receiving nutrition education alone, we are unable to conclude that the group receiving RTEC in addition to a nutrition education program works any better than nutrition education alone to increase carbohydrate intake. The study was not designed to test the effect of a nutrition education program without the increase in RTEC consumption.
The reduction in body fat and body weight in the RTEC and nutrition education group of the children was accompanied by a significant reduction in plasma triglycerides and by an elevation in HDL. Changes in these two variables are clearly associated with a reduction in body fat and are beneficial to reduce health complications associated with excess of body fat.
We found that a strategy to increase carbohydrate consumption to reduce obesity in children is effective only when accompanied with a nutrition education program. An increase in RTEC intake as a source of carbohydrates with a simple nutrition education guideline produced a significant loss of body weight, a decrease in body fat and in plasma triglycerides, and an increase in high density lipoproteins. The importance of nutrition education could be extrapolated to other nutritional manipulations intended for treatment of obesity.
Written informed consent was obtained from the parents for participation and publication of results. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal. This study was approved by the Internal Committee of Human Research of the University of Queretaro.
We would like to thank Juana Ramirez Anguiano, Paola García Juarez and Abigail Dominguez Chavero for their dedicated work, and to Elba Suaste for her special touch when taking blood from children and her assistance with laboratory work. We are grateful to Kellogg Company México S.A de C.V. that contributed with a scientific grant for partial funding of the study.
- De-Onis M, Blössner M: Prevalence and trends of overweight among pre-shoolchildren in developing countries. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000, 72: 1032-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Olaiz-Fernandez G, Rivera-Domarco J, Shama-Levy T, Rojas R, Villalpando-Hernández S, Hernández-Ávila H, Sepúlveda-Amor J: Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutricion 2006. 2006, Cuernavaca, Mexico: Instituto Nacional de Salud PúblicaGoogle Scholar
- Velazquez-Monroy O, Rosas-Peralta M, Lara-Esqueda A: Prevalenciae interrelación de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles y factores de riesgo cardiovascular en México: Resultados finales de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud (ENSA). Archivo de cardiología de México. Edited by: ENSA. 2003, 72 (1): 71-84.Google Scholar
- Encuesta Nacional de Enfermedades Crónicas (ENEC). Book Encuesta Nacional de Enfermedades Crónicas (ENEC) (Editor ed.^eds.). City: Secretaría de Salud. 1993Google Scholar
- Kirk T, Crombie N, Cursiter M: Promotion of dietary carbohydrate as an approach to weight maintenance after initial weight loss: A pilot study. J Hum Nutr Dietet. 2000, 13: 277-285. 10.1046/j.1365-277x.2000.00237.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jeffrey RW, Hellerstedt WL, French SA, Baxter IE: A randomized trial of counsselling for fat restriction versus caloric restriction in the treatment of obesity. Obesity. 1995, 19: 132-137.Google Scholar
- Astrup A, Ryan L, Grundwald G, Saris W, Hill W: Ad libitum low fat diets and body fatness: a meta-analysis of intmention studies. Br J Nutr. 2000, 83 (Suppl 1): S25-S32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lyon XH, Di-Vetta V, Milon H, Jequier E, Schutz Y: Compliance to dietary advise directed towards increasing the carbohydrate to fat ratio of the everyday diet. Intl J Obesity. 1995, 19: 260-269.Google Scholar
- Holmes KW, Kwiterovich PO: Treatment of dyslipidemia in children and adolescents. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2005, 7: 445-56. 10.1007/s11886-005-0063-x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reinehr T, Roth CL, Alexy U, Kersting M, Kiess W, Andler W: Ghrelin levels before and after reduction of overweight due to a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet in obese children and adolescents. Int J Obes. 2005, 29: 362-8. 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802913.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rolls BJ: The role of energy density in the overconsumption of fat. J Nutr. 2000, 130: 268S-271S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kirk TR, Burkill S, Cursiter M: Dietary fat reduction achieved by increasing consumption of a starchy food – an intervention study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1997, 51:Google Scholar
- Crombie N, Kirk T: Prevention of weight gain and blood cholesterol reduction after consumption of a high carbohydrate food in men. Intl J Obesity. 1999, 23: 557-Google Scholar
- Kuczmarski RJ, Ogden CL, Grummer-Strawn LM, Flegal KM, Guo SS, Wei R, Mei Z, Curtin L, Roche AF, Johnson CL: CDC growth charts: United States. Book CDC growth charts: United States. (Editor ed.^eds.). 2000, City: National Center for Health StatisticsGoogle Scholar
- A Pérez-Lizaur, Marvan A: Manual de documentos normales y terapéuticos. 1996, México: Edit. Manual Moderno, 3aGoogle Scholar
- Physical growth and psychosocial development of children: monitoring and interventions, protocols I and II, the development and field testing of techniques for monitoring. Book Physical growth and psychosocial development of children: monitoring and interventions, protocols I and II, the development and field testing of techniques for monitoring. (Editor ed.^eds.). 1992, City: World Health Organization. Maternal and child health and family planning unitGoogle Scholar
- Hernández B, Gortmaker SL, Laird N, Colditz G, Parra-Cabrera S, Peterson K: Validez y reproducibilidad de un cuestionario de actividad e inactividad física para escuelas de la Ciudad de México. Salud Pública de México. 2000, 42: 315-323.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ainsworth B: Compendium of physical activities tracking guide. Book Compendium of physical activities tracking guide. (Editor ed.^eds.). 2002, City: Prevention Research Center, Norman J Arnold School of Public Health, University of South CarolinaGoogle Scholar
- Kotler DP, Burastero S, Wang J, Jr RNP: Prediction of Body Cell Mass, Fat-Free Mass, and Total Body Water with Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis: Effects of Race, Sex, and Disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996, 64: 489S-97S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bachorick PS, Levy RI, Rifkind BM: Lípidos y dislipoproteinemia. Diagnóstico y tratamiento clínicos por el laboratorio. Edited by: Henry JB. 1993, Barcelona: Masson S A, 195-221. 9aGoogle Scholar
- Snedecor GW, Cochran WG: Statistical methods. 1987, Iowa State: University Press, 7aGoogle Scholar
- Hill JO, Melanson EL, Wyatt HT: Dietary fat intake and regulation of energy balance: Implications for obesity. J Nutr. 2000, 130: 284S-288S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rodearmel SJ, Wyatt HT, Barry MJ, Dong F, Pan D, Israel RG, Cho SS, McBurney MI, Hill JO: A family-based approach to preventing excessive weight gain. Obesity. 2006, 14: 1392-1401. 10.1038/oby.2006.158.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Epstein LH, Roemmich JN, Raynor HA: Behavioral therapy in the treatment of pedriatic obesity. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2001, 48: 981-93. 10.1016/S0031-3955(05)70352-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Barlow SE, Dietz WH: Management of child and adolescent obesity: Summary and recommendations vased on reports from pediatricians, pediatric nurse practitioners, and registered dietitians. Pediatrics. 2002, 110: 236-38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kain J, Uauy R, Albala , Vio F, Cerda R, Leyton B: School-based obesity prevention in Chilean primary school children: Methodology and evaluation of a controlled study. Int Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004, 28: 483-93. 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802611.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dietz WH, Gortmaker SL: Preventing obesity in children and adolescents. Annu Rev Public Health. 2001, 22: 337-53. 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.22.1.337.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Birch LL, Davison KK: Family environmental factors influencing the developing behavioral controls of food intake and childhood overweight. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2001, 48: 893-907. 10.1016/S0031-3955(05)70347-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Deckelbaum RJ, Williams CL: Childhood obesity: The health issue. Obesity Research. 2001, 9: 239S-243S. 10.1038/oby.2001.125.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stettler N: Environmental factors in the etiology of obesity in adolescents. Ethn Dis. 2002, 12: 41-5.Google Scholar
- Crawford PB, Gosliner W, Anderson C, Strode P, Becerra-Jones Y, Samuel S, Carroll AM, Ritchie LD: Counceling latina mothers of preschool children abount weight issues: Suggestions for a new framework. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004, 104: 387-94. 10.1016/j.jada.2003.12.018.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- McCrory MA, Suen VMM, Roberts SB: Biobehavioral influences on energy intake and adult weight gain. J Nutr. 2002, 132: 3830S-3834S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bhandari N, Mazumder S, Bahl R, Martines J, Black R, Bhan M, et al: An educational intervention to promote appropriate complementary feeding practices and physical growth in infants and young children in rural Haryana, India. J Nutr. 2004, 134: 2342-48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bronner Y, Hawkins AS, Holt ML, Hossain MB, Rowel RH, Sydnor KL, Divers SP: Models for nutrition education to increase consumption of calcium and dairy products among African Americans. J Nutr. 2006, 136: 1103-6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Creed-Kanashiro H, Uribe T, Bartolini R, Fukumoto M, Lopez T, Zavaleta N, Bentley M: dietary intake to prevent anemia in adolescent girls through community kitchens in a periurban population of Lima, Peru. J Nutr. 2000, 130: 459s-461s.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guldan G, Fan H, Ma X, Ni Z, Xiang X, Tang M: Culturally appropriate nutrition education improves infant feeding and growth in rural Sichuan, China. J Nutr. 2000, 130: 1204-1211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hunt IF, Jacob M, Ostergard NJ, Masri G, Clark VA, Coulson AH: Effect of nutrition education on the nutritional status of low-income pregnant women of Mexican descent. Am J Clin Nutr. 1976, 29: 675-684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.