Katzmarzyk PT, Barreira TV, Broyles ST, Champagne CM, Chaput JP, Fogelholm M, et al. Relationship between lifestyle behaviors and obesity in children ages 9–11: Results from a 12-country study. Obesity. 2015;23(8):1696–702.
Chooi YC, Ding C, Magkos F. The epidemiology of obesity. Metabolism. 2019;92:6–10.
Llewellyn A, Simmonds M, Owen CG, Woolacott N. Childhood obesity as a predictor of morbidity in adulthood: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2016;17(1):56–67.
Shields M, Tremblay MS, Connor Gorber S, Janssen I. Abdominal obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors within body mass index categories. Health Rep. 2012;23(2):7–15.
Haynos AF, O’Donohue WT. Universal childhood and adolescent obesity prevention programs: review and critical analysis. Clin Psychol Rev. 2012;32(5):383–99.
Kelishadi R, Haghdoost A-A, Sadeghirad B, Khajehkazemi R. Trend in the prevalence of obesity and overweight among Iranian children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition. 2014;30(4):393–400.
Blüher S, Schwarz P. Metabolically healthy obesity from childhood to adulthood—does weight status alone matter? Metabolism. 2014;63(9):1084–92.
Vukovic R, Dos Santos TJ, Ybarra M, Atar M. Children with metabolically healthy obesity: a review. Front Endocrinol. 2019;10:865.
Prince RL, Kuk JL, Ambler KA, Dhaliwal J, Ball GD. Predictors of metabolically healthy obesity in children. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(5):1462–8.
Alberti KGMM, Zimmet P, Shaw J. Metabolic syndrome—a new world-wide definition. A consensus statement from the international diabetes federation. Diabetic medicine. 2006;23(5):469–80.
Furukawa S, Fujita T, Shimabukuro M, Iwaki M, Yamada Y, Nakajima Y, et al. Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome. J Clin Investig. 2017;114(12):1752–61.
Marseglia L, Manti S, D’Angelo G, Nicotera A, Parisi E, Di Rosa G, et al. Oxidative stress in obesity: a critical component in human diseases. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16(1):378–400.
Rani V, Deep G, Singh RK, Palle K, Yadav UC. Oxidative stress and metabolic disorders: Pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies. Life Sci. 2016;148:183–93.
Codoñer-Franch P, López-Jaén AB, De La Mano-Hernández A, Sentandreu E, Simó-Jordá R, Valls-Bellés V. Oxidative markers in children with severe obesity following low-calorie diets supplemented with mandarin juice. Acta Paediatr. 2010;99(12):1841–6.
Puchau B, Zulet M, De Echávarri AG, Navarro-Blasco I, Martinez J. Selenium intake reduces serum C3, an early marker of metabolic syndrome manifestations, in healthy young adults. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63(7):858–64.
da Silva LdSV, da Veiga GV, Ramalho RA. Association of serum concentrations of retinol and carotenoids with overweight in children and adolescents. Nutrition. 2007;23(5):392–7.
Molnár D, Decsi T, Koletzko B. Reduced antioxidant status in obese children with multimetabolic syndrome. Int J Obes. 2004;28(10):1197–202.
Puchau B, Zulet MA, de Echávarri AG, Hermsdorff HHM, Martínez JA. Dietary total antioxidant capacity: a novel indicator of diet quality in healthy young adults. J Am Coll Nutr. 2009;28(6):648–56.
Puchau B, Zulet MA, de Echávarri AG, Hermsdorff HHM, Martínez JA. Dietary total antioxidant capacity is negatively associated with some metabolic syndrome features in healthy young adults. Nutrition. 2010;26(5):534–41.
Psaltopoulou T, Panagiotakos D, Pitsavos C, Chrysochoou C, Detopoulou P, Skoumas J, et al. Dietary antioxidant capacity is inversely associated with diabetes biomarkers: the ATTICA study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011;21(8):561–7.
Tyssandier V, Feillet-Coudray C, Caris-Veyrat C, Guilland J-C, Coudray C, Bureau S, et al. Effect of tomato product consumption on the plasma status of antioxidant microconstituents and on the plasma total antioxidant capacity in healthy subjects. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004;23(2):148–56.
Valtueña S, Pellegrini N, Franzini L, Bianchi MA, Ardigo D, Del Rio D, et al. Food selection based on total antioxidant capacity can modify antioxidant intake, systemic inflammation, and liver function without altering markers of oxidative stress. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(5):1290–7.
Brighenti F, Valtuena S, Pellegrini N, Ardigo D, Del Rio D, Salvatore S, et al. Total antioxidant capacity of the diet is inversely and independently related to plasma concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in adult Italian subjects. Br J Nutr. 2005;93(5):619–25.
Hermsdorff HHM, Puchau B, Volp ACP, Barbosa KB, Bressan J, Zulet MÁ, et al. Dietary total antioxidant capacity is inversely related to central adiposity as well as to metabolic and oxidative stress markers in healthy young adults. Nutr Metab. 2011;8(1):1–8.
Rupérez AI, Mesa MD, Anguita-Ruiz A, González-Gil EM, Vázquez-Cobela R, Moreno LA, et al. Antioxidants and oxidative stress in children: Influence of puberty and metabolically unhealthy status. Antioxidants. 2020;9(7):618.
Qorbani M, Khashayar P, Rastad H, Ejtahed H-S, Shahrestanaki E, Seif E, et al. Association of dietary behaviors, biochemical, and lifestyle factors with metabolic phenotypes of obesity in children and adolescents. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2020;12(1):1–7.
Yaghoubpour K, Tasdighi E, Abdi H, Barzin M, Mahdavi M, Valizadeh M, et al. Association of obesity phenotypes in adolescents and incidence of early adulthood type 2 diabetes mellitus: Tehran lipid and glucose study. Pediatr Diabetes. 2021;22(7):937–45.
Onis Md, Onyango AW, Borghi E, Siyam A, Nishida C, Siekmann J. Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Bull World Health Organ. 2007;85:660–7.
Kelishadi R, Majdzadeh R, Motlagh M-E, Heshmat R, Aminaee T, Ardalan G, et al. Development and evaluation of a questionnaire for assessment of determinants of weight disorders among children and adolescents: the Caspian-IV study. Int J Prev Med. 2012;3(10):699.
Ghaffarpour M, Houshiar-Rad A, Kianfar H. The manual for household measures, cooking yields factors and edible portion of foods. Tehran: Nashre Olume Keshavarzy. 1999;7(213):42–58.
Carlsen M, Halvorsen B, Holte K, Bøhn S, Dragland S, Sampson L, et al. Additional file 1: the antioxidant food table. Nutr J. 2010;9:1–138.
Halvorsen BL, Holte K, Myhrstad MC, Barikmo I, Hvattum E, Remberg SF, et al. A systematic screening of total antioxidants in dietary plants. J Nutr. 2002;132(3):461–71.
Matthews DR, Hosker J, Rudenski A, Naylor B, Treacher D, Turner R. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and β-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia. 1985;28(7):412–9.
Zimmet P, Alberti G, Kaufman F, Tajima N, Silink M, Arslanian S, et al. The metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. Lancet. 2007;369(9579):2059–61.
Keskin M, Kurtoglu S, Kendirci M, Atabek ME, Yazici C. Homeostasis model assessment is more reliable than the fasting glucose/insulin ratio and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index for assessing insulin resistance among obese children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2005;115(4):e500–3.
Kowalski KC, Crocker PR, Donen RM. The physical activity questionnaire for older children (PAQ-C) and adolescents (PAQ-A) manual. College of Kinesiology, University of Saskatchewan. 2004;87(1):1–38.
Garmaroudi GR, Moradi A. Socio-economic status in Iran: a study of measurement index. Payesh (Health Monitor). 2010;9(2):137–44.
Mozaffari H, Daneshzad E, Larijani B, Surkan PJ, Azadbakht L. Association of dietary total antioxidant capacity to anthropometry in healthy women: A cross-sectional study. Nutrition. 2020;69:110577.
Esmaillzadeh A, Mirmiran P, Azizi F. Whole-grain consumption and the metabolic syndrome: a favorable association in Tehranian adults. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;59:353–62.
Abete I, Astrup A, Martinez JA, Thorsdottir I, Zulet MA. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome: role of different dietary macronutrient distribution patterns and specific nutritional components on weight loss and maintenance. Nutr Rev. 2010;68:214–31.
Jang H, Park K. Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Nutr. 2020;39(3):765–73.
Primeau V, Coderre L, Karelis A, Brochu M, Lavoie M, Messier V, et al. Characterizing the profile of obese patients who are metabolically healthy. Int J Obes. 2011;35(7):971–81.
Chang Y, Ryu S, Suh B, Yun K, Kim C, Cho S. Impact of BMI on the incidence of metabolic abnormalities in metabolically healthy men. Int J Obes. 2012;36(9):1187–94.
Schröder H, Ramos R, Baena-Díez JM, Mendez MA, Canal DJ, Fíto M, et al. Determinants of the transition from a cardiometabolic normal to abnormal overweight/obese phenotype in a Spanish population. Eur J Nutr. 2014;53(6):1345–53.
Hinnouho G-M, Czernichow S, Dugravot A, Batty GD, Kivimaki M, Singh-Manoux A. Metabolically healthy obesity and risk of mortality: does the definition of metabolic health matter? Diabetes Care. 2013;36(8):2294–300.
Crujeiras AB, Parra MD, Rodríguez MC, de Morentin BEM, Martínez JA. A role for fruit content in energy-restricted diets in improving antioxidant status in obese women during weight loss. Nutrition. 2006;22(6):593–9.
Pellegrini N, Serafini M, Colombi B, Del Rio D, Salvatore S, Bianchi M, et al. Total antioxidant capacity of plant foods, beverages and oils consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays. J Nutr. 2003;133(9):2812–9.
Puchau B, Ochoa MC, Zulet MÁ, Marti A, Martínez JA, Members G. Dietary total antioxidant capacity and obesity in children and adolescents. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2010;61(7):713–21.
Stenzel AP, Carvalho R, Jesus P, Bull A, Pereira S, Saboya C, et al. Serum antioxidant associations with metabolic characteristics in metabolically healthy and unhealthy adolescents with severe obesity: an observational study. Nutrients. 2018;10(2):150.
Okubo H, Syddall H, Phillips D, Sayer A, Dennison E, Cooper C, et al. Dietary total antioxidant capacity is related to glucose tolerance in older people: the Hertfordshire Cohort Study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014;24(3):301–8.
Czernichow S, Vergnaud A-C, Galan P, Arnaud J, Favier A, Faure H, et al. Effects of long-term antioxidant supplementation and association of serum antioxidant concentrations with risk of metabolic syndrome in adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(2):329–35.
Avignon A, Hokayem M, Bisbal C, Lambert K. Dietary antioxidants: do they have a role to play in the ongoing fight against abnormal glucose metabolism? Nutrition. 2012;28(7–8):715–21.
Bisbal C, Lambert K, Avignon A. Antioxidants and glucose metabolism disorders. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010;13(4):439–46.
Codoñer-Franch P, Valls-Bellés V, Arilla-Codoñer A, Alonso-Iglesias E. Oxidant mechanisms in childhood obesity: the link between inflammation and oxidative stress. Transl Res. 2011;158(6):369–84.
Montero D, Walther G, Perez-Martin A, Roche E, Vinet A. Endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and oxidative stress in obese children and adolescents: markers and effect of lifestyle intervention. Obes Rev. 2012;13(5):441–55.
Liu RH. Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78(3):517S-S520.
Saura-Calixto F. Dietary fiber as a carrier of dietary antioxidants: an essential physiological function. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59(1):43–9.
Valtuena S, Del Rio D, Pellegrini N, Ardigo D, Franzini L, Salvatore S, et al. The total antioxidant capacity of the diet is an independent predictor of plasma β-carotene. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007;61(1):69–76.
Skinner AC, Steiner MJ, Henderson FW, Perrin EM. Multiple markers of inflammation and weight status: cross-sectional analyses throughout childhood. Pediatrics. 2010;125(4):e801–9.