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Table 3 Weighted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for score on CERAD test, Animal Fluency test, and DSST across tertiles of dietary ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids intake and ω-6: ω-3 ratio excluding vegetariansb, NHANES 2011–2014 (N = 2146)

From: Response to important considerations when assessing the effect of essential fatty acids on cognitive performance

  CERAD testa Animal Fluency testa DSSTa
ω-3 (mg/kcal/day)
 <0.727 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 0.727 to <1.04 0.61 (0.38–0.95) * 0.77 (0.53–1.13) 0.91 (0.52–1.58)
 ≥ 1.04 0.55 (0.35–0.88) * 0.69 (0.44–1.06) 0.60 (0.43–0.84) **
ω-6 (mg/kcal/day)
 <6.538 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 6.538 to <8.848 0.55 (0.35–0.87) * 0.72 (0.50–1.04) 0.93 (0.58–1.50)
 ≥ 8.848 0.48 (0.30–0.76) ** 0.68 (0.44–1.06) 0.56 (0.38–0.79) **
ω-6: ω-3 ratio
 <7.684 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)
 7.684 to <9.462 1.00 (0.67–1.48) 1.21 (0.86–1.69) 1.12 (0.73–1.73)
 ≥ 9.462 1.03 (0.61–1.76) 1.37 (0.79–2.36) 0.87 (0.53–1.45)
  1. Model adjusted for age, gender, race, educational level, marital status, income, BMI, recreational activity, work activity, vitamin D, niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folic acid, zinc, iron, copper, selenium, protein, total saturated fatty acids, drinking status, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and depression
  2. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01
  3. aCalculated using binary logistic regression
  4. bVegetarians are defined based on two 24-h dietary recall