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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population, NHANES 2011–2014 (N = 2496)

From: Response to important considerations when assessing the effect of essential fatty acids on cognitive performance

  CERAD test Animal Fluency test Digit Symbol test
Normal Cognitive Performance Low Cognitive Performance P Value Normal Cognitive Performance Low Cognitive Performance P Value Normal Cognitive Performance Low Cognitive Performance P Value
Number of subjects 1851 (74.2) 645 (25.8)   1778 (71.2) 718 (28.8)   1850 (74.1) 646 (25.9)  
Vitamin D (mcg)b 3.65 (4.2) 3.64 (3.7) 0.875 3.8 (4.1) 3.35 (3.9) < 0.01 3.7 (4.2) 3.5 (3.6) 0.042
Niacin (mg)b 21.02 (11.8) 19.48 (11.7) < 0.01 21.33 (11.9) 19.1 (10.6) < 0.01 21.29 (11.7) 18.71 (11.5) < 0.01
Vitamin B6 (mg)b 1.79 (1.04) 1.64 (1.02) < 0.01 1.8 (1.06) 1.63 (1.01) < 0.01 1.81 (1.03) 1.56 (1.04) < 0.01
Vitamin B12 (mcg)b 3.82 (3.3) 3.40 (3.2) < 0.01 3.88 (3.34) 3.34 (3.2) < 0.01 3.9 (3.3) 3.15 (3.2) < 0.01
Folic acid (mcg)b 132 (141) 119 (125) 0.012 132 (143) 120 (118) < 0.01 133 (143) 113 (115) < 0.01
Zinc (mg)b 9.4 (5.3) 8.7 (5.2) < 0.01 9.62 (5.4) 8.23 (5.1) < 0.01 9.56 (5.1) 8.05 (4.6) < 0.01
Iron (mg)b 12.94 (7.4) 12.01 (7.7) < 0.01 13.06 (7.5) 11.91 (7.4) < 0.01 13 (7.5) 11.7 (7.6) < 0.01
Copper (mg)b 1.08 (0.6) 1.01 (0.6) < 0.01 1.11 (0.61) 0.95 (0.5) < 0.01 1.12 (0.59) 0.93 (0.54) < 0.01
Selenium (mcg)b 96.75 (53) 90.85 (52) < 0.01 99.1 (54) 87.07 (52) < 0.01 98.62 (51) 85.52 (55) < 0.01
Protein (gm)b 70.06 (34.2) 65.52 (35.9) < 0.01 71.11 (35.1) 63.73 (33.4) < 0.01 70.98 (34.0) 61.01 (37.4) < 0.01
Total saturated fatty acids (gm)b 20.65 (14.4) 17.85 (13.7) < 0.01 21.03 (14) 17.39 (13.4) < 0.01 21.13 (14) 16.8 (13.8) < 0.01
Depression (%)a 145 (7.9) 71 (11.2) 0.010 120 (6.8) 96 (13.6) < 0.01 120 (6.5) 96 (15.1) < 0.01
Pre-diabetes (%)a 128 (9.4) 28 (6.4) 0.055 109 (8.2) 47 (10.0) 0.229 130 (9.3) 26 (6.5) 0.074
Gastrointestinal disorders (%)a 116 (6.3) 38 (5.9) 0.756 107 (6.0) 47 (6.6) 0.618 111 (6.0) 43 (6.7) 0.537
Smoking (%)a 928 (50.2) 333 (51.6) 0.521 908 (51.1) 353 (49.2) 0.382 926 (50.1) 335 (51.9) 0.437
  1. Data are number of subjects (percentage) or medians (inter quartile ranges)
  2. a Chi-square test was used to compare the percentage between participants with and without low cognitive performance
  3. b Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the mean values between participants with and without low cognitive performance