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Table 5 Change between 2004 (N = 34,463) and 2015 (N = 20,176) average per capita daily beverage consumption (N = 54,579)

From: Beverage consumption and energy intake among Canadians: analyses of 2004 and 2015 national dietary intake data

  Change between 2004 and 2015 Adjusted p-value
Relative change (% difference) Absolute change
ml kcal
Plain water
 Volume + 10% 77.5 p < 0.0001
Other unsweetened beverages
 Volume −11% −45.6 p < 0.0001
 Energy −42% −4.1 p < 0.0001
SSBs
 Volume −26% −70.2 p < 0.0001
 Energy −20% −24.7 p < 0.0001
Plain milk
 Volume −37% −76.0 p < 0.0001
 Energy −35% − 35.3 p < 0.0001
Alcoholic beverages
 Volume −13% −18.1 p = 0.1928
 Energy −3% −1.8 p = 0.7314
100% juice
 Volume −40% −50.6 p < 0.0001
 Energy −38% −20.5 p < 0.0001
Diet or light beverages
 Volume −15% −8.0 p = 0.0557
 Energy −46% −1.3 p < 0.001
  1. Model statistics are for separate linear models using generalized least squares regression for each beverage category, with survey year as the independent variable and the covariates sex, age, ethnicity, income, province, and BMI category; α = 0.05. No model was constructed for plain water as this beverage category contained no energy. Abbreviations: kcal kilocalorie, ml millilitre, Non. sig. statistically non-significant, SSBs Sugar-sweetened beverages