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Table 3 Daily per capita beverage volume intake (ml) from beverage categories in 2015, by socio-demographic characteristic (N = 20,176)

From: Beverage consumption and energy intake among Canadians: analyses of 2004 and 2015 national dietary intake data

  Plain water Other unsweetened SSBs Plain milk Alcoholic beverages 100% juice Diet or light beverages
Mean volume in ml (95% CI) Adjusted p-value Mean volume in ml (95% CI) Adjusted p-value Mean volume in ml (95% CI) Adjusted p-value Mean volume in ml (95% CI) Adjusted p-value Mean volume in ml (95% CI) Adjusted p-value Mean volume in ml (95% CI) Adjusted p-value Mean volume in ml (95% CI) Adjusted p-value
Model statistics n F(26,20,176) = 57.08 F(26,20,176) = 170.71 F(26,20,176) = 57.06 F(26,20,176) = 73.54 F(26,20,176) = 62.69 F(26,20,176) = 43.04 F(1,20,176) = 27.22
Sex   p = 0.6492 p = 0.0052 p < .0001 p < .0001 p < .0001 p < .0001 p = 0.5069
 Male 10,096 879.0 (836.4, 921.6) 379.5 (360.9, 398.0) 246.8 (229.6, 264.1) 143.6 (134.9, 152.3) 177.8 (157.1, 198.4) 85.9 (78.6, 93.1) 47.7 (38.9, 56.6)
 Female 10,080 855.5 (825.8, 885.1) 349.3 (334.6, 364.1) 160.2 (149.6, 170.9) 119.9 (112.8, 127.1) 62.7 (55.4, 69.9) 62.7 (58.1, 67.4) 40.6 (33.5, 47.7)
Age (years)   p < .0001 p < .0001 p < .0001 p < .0001 p < .0001 p < .0001 p < .0001
 1–8 1800 444.9 (418.8, 471.1) 4.9 (3.0, 6.7) 129.7 (116.8, 142.5) 285.7 (268.0, 303.4) 0.8 (0.0, 1.9)* 119.7 (109.4, 130.1) 5.6 (2.7, 8.6)
 9–18 2230 806.9 (771.3, 842.6) 47.3 (40.2, 54.4) 302.7 (281.5, 323.8) 206.4 (194.1, 218.7) 7.9 (4.4, 11.4) 116.9 (107.1, 126.6) 17.3 (13.3, 21.3)
 19–30 2622 1092.0 (980.0, 1204.1) 287.9 (252.0, 323.8) 327.1 (277.2, 377.0) 119.0 (91.6, 146.4) 170.4 (120.3, 220.5) 91.3 (70.9, 111.7) 23.4 (16.3, 30.6)
 31–50 6150 1006.1 (950.9, 1061.3) 452.7 (427.8, 477.7) 214.4 (195.6, 233.2) 95.1 (85.8, 104.4) 154.7 (131.6, 177.8) 60.5 (52.0, 69.0) 58.3 (44.8, 71.9)
 51+ 7374 792.9 (760.0, 825.7) 501.7 (485.0, 518.3) 138.7 (127.8, 149.7) 106.8 (100.0, 113.5) 136.9 (121.8, 151.9) 55.8 (50.8, 60.8) 57.2 (47.6, 66.8)
Ethnicity   p = 0.0100 p < .0001 p < .0001 p < .0001 p < .0001 p = 0.1130 p < .0001
 White only 14,452 876.3 (848.2, 904.5) 398.8 (384.6, 413.0) 203.9 (190.9, 216.9) 136.9 (130.4, 143.4) 149.0 (135.1, 162.9) 74.2 (69.0, 79.4) 52.8 (45.1, 60.4)
 Chinese only 915 713.3 (636.9, 789.7) 340.3 (274.1, 406.4) 116.4 (88.5, 144.3) 97.8 (80.7, 114.9) 13.9 (7.1, 20.6) 51.3 (36.8, 65.7) 4.7 (1.3, 8.1)
 South Asian only 994 849.4 (767.6, 931.2) 214.3 (180.0, 248.5) 197.4 (158.1, 236.7) 188.2 (149.1, 227.3) 19.8 (10.0, 29.7) 64.0 (49.5, 78.6) 21.2 (9.2, 33.2)
 Black only 706 777.3 (640.8, 913.8) 158.9 (122.8, 194.9) 221.7 (182.7, 260.7) 92.5 (61.3, 123.8) 30.3 (15.2, 45.4) 97.5 (72.1, 123.0) 12.8 (0.0, 29.7)*
 Indigenous inclusive 606 896.4 (798.4, 994.4) 337.6 (282.5, 392.7) 303.4 (241.0, 365.9) 134.1 (107.4, 160.8) 72.9 (47.5, 98.3) 79.3 (52.4, 106.2) 61.1 (34.3, 87.9)
 Mixed/other/not stated/ missing 2504 896.4 (807.6, 985.2) 299.0 (257.2, 340.9) 206.8 (178.8, 234.9) 102.8 (90.5, 115.0) 70.1 (34.6, 105.6) 79.5 (67.0, 92.1) 22.7 (13.5, 31.9)
Income quartile   p < .0001 p = 0.0213 p = 0.2543 p = 0.5967 p = 0.0003 p = 0.8946 p = 0.0288
 1 (lowest income) 3758 741.1 (684.4, 797.9) 363.1 (335.4, 390.8) 208.3 (185.5, 231.0) 141.0 (123.4, 158.7) 69.5 (54.5, 84.5) 74.4 (65.1, 83.6) 36.3 (27.0, 45.5)
 2 3854 815.8 (758.8, 872.8) 323.0 (301.9, 344.1) 199.3 (178.0, 220.7) 132.1 (120.3, 143.9) 108.3 (89.6, 126.9) 79.2 (68.9, 89.4) 33.3 (26.5, 40.0)
 3 3634 914.3 (852.9, 975.8) 379.0 (352.6, 405.4) 209.8 (189.8, 229.9) 135.5 (121.8, 149.2) 121.2 (99.9, 142.5) 73.2 (64.4, 82.0) 50.7 (37.5, 63.8)
 4 (highest income) 3796 1048.2 (986.2, 1110.2) 424.0 (393.1, 455.0) 191.8 (167.4, 216.3) 124.6 (113.6, 135.5) 173.4 (142.6, 204.1) 65.4 (55.2, 75.6) 71.6 (52.6, 90.6)
 Not reported 5135 831.1 (781.1, 881.0) 342.1 (316.6, 367.6) 207.6 (185.4, 229.8) 127.4 (117.8, 137.0) 126.5 (98.2, 154.9) 77.9 (67.8, 88.1) 33.2 (21.6, 44.7)
Province   p < .0001 p = 0.0054 p < .0001 p = 0.0002 p = 0.0135 p < .0001 p < .0001
 NL 300 651.4 (581.6, 721.1) 384.6 (337.9, 431.4) 233.5 (192.7, 274.3) 110.5 (96.5, 124.5) 104.5 (65.9, 143.1) 68.5 (55.4, 81.6) 83.5 (58.7, 108.2)
 PEI 83 680.8 (613.8, 747.7) 387.1 (352.9, 421.4) 207.7 (181.6, 233.8) 153.9 (136.8, 171.0) 105.0 (67.8, 142.2) 75.7 (56.2, 95.2) 54.2 (34.1, 74.2)
 Nova Scotia 531 839.8 (745.6, 933.9) 386.3 (353.5, 419.1) 208.2 (178.2, 238.2) 137.2 (121.2, 153.2) 134.8 (86.6, 182.9) 63.3 (52.1, 74.4) 52.0 (38.7, 65.3)
 New Brunswick 421 826.1 (740.7, 911.5) 389.3 (348.2, 430.5) 234.3 (201.3, 267.2) 144.0 (124.8, 163.1) 124.7 (88.8, 160.6) 66.9 (54.8, 78.9) 55.3 (38.2, 72.4)
 Quebec 4704 809.9 (756.6, 863.2) 336.8 (310.1, 363.6) 192.9 (171.0, 214.7) 146.1 (130.6, 161.7) 146.9 (119.8, 174.1) 116.9 (103.5, 130.2) 50.6 (35.6, 65.7)
 Ontario 7834 827.4 (779.2, 875.6) 360.1 (340.0, 380.2) 208.5 (189.3, 227.8) 124.8 (114.4, 135.1) 101.0 (84.8, 117.2) 64.1 (57.7, 70.5) 38.7 (29.4, 48.0)
 Manitoba 694 905.5 (816.1, 995.0) 371.8 (336.0, 407.5) 249.5 (217.5, 281.5) 147.4 (131.3, 163.6) 79.0 (58.0, 100.1) 61.5 (49.8, 73.3) 68.9 (40.0, 97.8)
 Saskatchewan 613 882.3 (799.1, 965.6) 440.1 (391.7, 488.4) 204.7 (172.3, 237.1) 160.7 (139.7, 181.8) 103.0 (55.4, 150.7) 61.5 (49.1, 73.9) 45.9 (29.1, 62.6)
 Alberta 2352 1028.4 (946.4, 1110.5) 358.6 (322.4, 394.7) 246.6 (219.6, 273.6) 133.5 (121.0, 146.1) 137.5 (98.8, 176.1) 54.9 (45.4, 64.5) 58.3 (41.2, 75.4)
British Columbia 2644 972.8 (891.6, 1053.9) 400.7 (371.4, 430.1) 148.1 (131.5, 164.6) 113.3 (102.1, 124.5) 128.1 (105.3, 150.9) 56.3 (47.0, 65.6) 21.0 (14.4, 27.6)
BMI category   p < .0001 p = 0.7782 p = 0.6788 p = 0.4117 p = 0.2204 p = 0.0142 p < .0001
 Underweight/normal 6002 774.2 (738.0, 810.3) 288.2 (268.4, 308.0) 213.5 (196.3, 230.8) 143.0 (132.4, 153.6) 102.5 (86.6, 118.3) 92.6 (84.4, 100.9) 17.9 (13.5, 22.4)
 Overweight 4308 915.2 (858.1, 972.2) 387.7 (362.2, 413.2) 194.2 (178.0, 210.3) 126.9 (114.4, 139.3) 120.1 (98.0, 142.3) 67.3 (59.1, 75.6) 52.2 (36.8, 67.5)
Obese 3115 1025.6 (951.9, 1099.3) 419.8 (389.6, 450.0) 217.9 (187.5, 248.3) 127.3 (114.2, 140.3) 144.8 (115.7, 173.9) 61.3 (52.0, 70.6) 89.0 (67.9, 110.0)
 Don’t know/refusal/not stated 6752 846.3 (796.6, 896.1) 391.8 (368.9, 414.8) 194.2 (175.3, 213.0) 127.0 (117.3, 136.7) 124.8 (103.8, 145.8) 68.4 (60.7, 76.2) 41.6 (33.6, 49.7)
  1. All means are weighted ‘arithmetic means’ (also referred to as ‘observed means’), and not linear regression adjusted least squares means. Models statistics are for separate linear models using generalized least squares regression for each beverage category, with covariates sex, age, ethnicity, income, province, and BMI category; α = 0.05
  2. Abbreviations: 95% CI 95% confidence interval, BMI Body-mass index, ml millilitre, NF Newfoundland and Labrador, PEI Prince Edward Island, SSBs Sugar-sweetened beverages
  3. *Estimates for these 95% confidence intervals contained values less than zero. For reporting, these values were replaced with ‘0’ as they were a result of the bootstrap resampling method and not an indication of negative consumption