Strauss RS, Pollack HA. Epidemic increase in childhood overweight, 1986-1998. JAMA. 2001;286:2845–8.
Kahn BB, Flier JS. Obesity and insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. 2000;106:473–81.
Al-Goblan AS, Al-Alfi MA, Khan MZ. Mechanism linking diabetes mellitus and obesity. Diabet Metab Syndr Obes. 2014;7:587–91.
Bastien M, Poirier P, Lemieux I, Despres JP. Overview of epidemiology and contribution of obesity to cardiovascular disease. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2014;56:369–81.
Molica F, Morel S, Kwak BR, Rohner-Jeanrenaud F, Steffens S. Adipokines at the crossroad between obesity and cardiovascular disease. Thromb Haemost. 2015;113:553–66.
Nakamura K, Fuster JJ, Walsh K. Adipokines: a link between obesity and cardiovascular disease. J Cardiol. 2014;63:250–9.
Narkiewicz K. Obesity and hypertension--the issue is more complex than we thought. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006;21:264–7.
Kotsis V, Stabouli S, Papakatsika S, Rizos Z, Parati G. Mechanisms of obesity-induced hypertension. Hypertens Res. 2010;33:386–93.
Rodgers RJ, Tschop MH, Wilding JP. Anti-obesity drugs: past, present and future. Dis Model Mech. 2012;5:621–6.
Trigueros L, Pena S, Ugidos AV, Sayas-Barbera E, Perez-Alvarez JA, Sendra E. Food ingredients as anti-obesity agents: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2013;53:929–42.
Egras AM, Hamilton WR, Lenz TL, Monaghan MS. An evidence-based review of fat modifying supplemental weight loss products. J Obes. 2011;2011:7–13.
Ibrahim MM. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue: structural and functional differences. Obes Rev. 2010;11:11–8.
Hamdy O, Porramatikul S, Al-Ozairi E. Metabolic obesity: the paradox between visceral and subcutaneous fat. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2006;2:367–73.
Tchernof A, Despres JP. Pathophysiology of human visceral obesity: an update. Physiol Rev. 2013;93:359–404.
Smith U. Abdominal obesity: a marker of ectopic fat accumulation. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:1790–2.
Thomas DM, Bouchard C, Church T, Slentz C, Kraus WE, Redman LM, Martin CK, Silva AM, Vossen M, Westerterp K, Heymsfield SB. Why do individuals not lose more weight from an exercise intervention at a defined dose? An energy balance analysis. Obes Rev. 2012;13:835–47.
Marco-Ramell A, Tulipani S, Palau-Rodriguez M, Gonzalez-Dominguez R, Minarro A, Jauregui O, Sanchez-Pla A, Macias-Gonzalez M, Cardona F, Tinahones FJ, Andres-Lacueva C. Untargeted profiling of concordant/discordant phenotypes of high insulin resistance and obesity to predict the risk of developing diabetes. J Proteome Res. 2018;17:2307–17.
Steenackers B, De Cooman L, De Vos D. Chemical transformations of characteristic hop secondary metabolites in relation to beer properties and the brewing process: a review. Food Chem. 2015;172:742–56.
Taniguchi Y, Matsukura Y, Taniguchi H, Koizumi H, Katayama M. Development of preparative and analytical methods of the hop bitter acid oxide fraction and chemical properties of its components. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2015;79:1684–94.
Yajima H, Ikeshima E, Shiraki M, Kanaya T, Fujiwara D, Odai H, Tsuboyama-Kasaoka N, Ezaki O, Oikawa S, Kondo K. Isohumulones, bitter acids derived from hops, activate both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma and reduce insulin resistance. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:33456–62.
Nozawa H, Nakao W, Zhao F, Kondo K. Dietary supplement of isohumulones inhibits the formation of aberrant crypt foci with a concomitant decrease in prostaglandin E2 level in rat colon. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2005;49:772–8.
Miura Y, Hosono M, Oyamada C, Odai H, Oikawa S, Kondo K. Dietary isohumulones, the bitter components of beer, raise plasma HDL-cholesterol levels and reduce liver cholesterol and triacylglycerol contents similar to PPARα activations in C57BL/6 mice. Br J Nutr. 2005;93:559–67.
Ano Y, Dohata A, Taniguchi Y, Hoshi A, Uchida K, Takashima A, Nakayama H. Iso-alpha-acids, bitter components of beer, prevent inflammation and cognitive decline induced in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:3720–8.
Yajima H, Noguchi T, Ikeshima E, Shiraki M, Kanaya T, Tsuboyama-Kasaoka N, Ezaki O, Oikawa S, Kondo K. Prevention of diet-induced obesity by dietary isomerized hop extract containing isohumulones, in rodents. Int J Obes. 2005;29:991–7.
Obara K, Mizutani M, Hitomi Y, Yajima H, Kondo K. Isohumulones, the bitter component of beer, improve hyperglycemia and decrease body fat in Japanese subjects with prediabetes. Clin Nutr. 2009;28:278–84.
Almaguer CGM, Arendt EK, Becker T. Contributions of hop hard resins to beer quality. Brew Sci. 2012;65:118–29.
Morimoto-Kobayashi Y, Ohara K, Ashigai H, Kanaya T, Koizumi K, Manabe F, Kaneko Y, Taniguchi Y, Katayama M, Kowatari Y, Kondo S. Matured hop extract reduces body fat in healthy overweight humans: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study. Nutr J. 2016;15:25.
Kleist B, Wahrburg U, Stehle P, Schomaker R, Greiwing A, Stoffel-Wagner B, Egert S. Moderate walking enhances the effects of an energy-restricted diet on fat mass loss and serum insulin in overweight and obese adults in a 12-week randomized controlled trial. J Nutr. 2017;147:1875–84.
Miller CT, Fraser SF, Levinger I, Straznicky NE, Dixon JB, Reynolds J, Selig SE. The effects of exercise training in addition to energy restriction on functional capacities and body composition in obese adults during weight loss: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2013;8:e81692.
Washburn RA, Szabo AN, Lambourne K, Willis EA, Ptomey LT, Honas JJ, Herrmann SD, Donnelly JE. Does the method of weight loss effect long-term changes in weight, body composition or chronic disease risk factors in overweight or obese adults? A systematic review. PLoS One. 2014;9:e109849.
Suzuki S, Morimoto-Kobayashi Y, Takahashi C, Taniguchi Y, Katayama M. Genetic, acute and subchronic toxicity studies of matured hop extract produced by extraction from heat-treated hops. J Toxicol Sci. 2018;43:473–84.
Kishida K, Funahashi T, Matsuzawa Y, Shimomura I. Visceral adiposity as a target for the management of the metabolic syndrome. Ann Med. 2012;44:233–41.
Hiuge-Shimizu A, Kishida K, Funahashi T, Ishizaka Y, Oka R, Okada M, Suzuki S, Takaya N, Nakagawa T, Fukui T, et al. Reduction of visceral fat correlates with the decrease in the number of obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese with abdominal obesity (VACATION-J study). J Atheroscler Thromb. 2012;19:1006–18.
Kishida K, Funahashi T, Shimomura I. Clinical significance of visceral fat reduction through health education in preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease - lesson from the Amagasaki visceral fat study: a Japanese perspective. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2011;8:57.
Park HS, Lee K. Greater beneficial effects of visceral fat reduction compared with subcutaneous fat reduction on parameters of the metabolic syndrome: a study of weight reduction programmes in subjects with visceral and subcutaneous obesity. Diabet Med. 2005;22:266–72.
Miyatake N, Nishikawa H, Morishita A, Kunitomi M, Wada J, Suzuki H, Takahashi K, Makino H, Kira S, Fujii M. Daily walking reduces visceral adipose tissue areas and improves insulin resistance in Japanese obese subjects. Diabet Res Clin Pract. 2002;58:101–7.
Vissers D, Hens W, Taeymans J, Baeyens JP, Poortmans J, Van Gaal L. The effect of exercise on visceral adipose tissue in overweight adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2013;8:e56415.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: 2008 Physical activity guidelines for American. 2008.
Donnelly JE, Blair SN, Jakicic JM, Manore MM, Rankin JW, Smith BK. American College of Sports M: American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Appropriate physical activity intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41:459–71.
Morimoto-Kobayashi Y, Ohara K, Takahashi C, Kitao S, Wang G, Taniguchi Y, Katayama M, Nagai K. Matured hop bittering components induce thermogenesis in Brown adipose tissue via sympathetic nerve activity. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0131042.
Lu P, Zhang CH, Lifshitz LM, ZhuGe R. Extraoral bitter taste receptors in health and disease. J Gen Physiol. 2017;149:181–97.
Yamazaki T, Morimoto-Kobayashi Y, Koizumi K, Takahashi C, Nakajima S, Kitao S, Taniguchi Y, Katayama M, Ogawa Y. Secretion of a gastrointestinal hormone, cholecystokinin, by hop-derived bitter components activates, sympathetic nerves in brown adipose tissue. J Nutr Biochem. In press.
Sanchez-Delgado G, Martinez-Tellez B, Olza J, Aguilera CM, Gil A, Ruiz JR. Role of exercise in the activation of Brown adipose tissue. Ann Nutr Metab. 2015;67:21–32.
De Matteis R, Lucertini F, Guescini M, Polidori E, Zeppa S, Stocchi V, Cinti S, Cuppini R. Exercise as a new physiological stimulus for brown adipose tissue activity. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013;23:582–90.