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Table 2 Systematic reviews investigating health effects of non-nutritive sweeteners

From: Health outcomes of non-nutritive sweeteners: analysis of the research landscape

First author, publication year Population Intervention/ Exposure Outcome Included study designs Limitations Date of search Searched databases
Bernardo, 2016 [274] adults and children AS use adverse clinical effects comparative and epidemiological studies ND ND MEDLINE; EMBASE; Cochrane Library; Lilacs/Scielo
Berry, 2016 [84] ND sucralose consumption carcinogenic potential ND ND ND MEDLINE;
Abstracts; Food Science and Technology Abstracts;
Borkum, 2016 [275] ND migraine triggers (including aspartame) oxidative stress in the brain ND published between1990–2014 and in English language ND MEDLINE
Brown, 2010 [22] children (0–18 y) AS consumption metabolic health effects (food intake, weight change, diabetes, metabolic syndrome components) ND published in peer reviewed journals in English language; published full text available ND MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE
Greenwood, 2014 [157] generally healthy population sugar- or artificially-sweetened beverage consumption incident diabetes mellitus type 2 risk prospective observational studies (min. Duration: 3 years) published since 1990 and in English language November 2009; updated: June 2013 Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; MEDLINE In-Process; EMBASE; CAB Abstracts; ISI Web of Science; BIOSIS
Cheungpasitporn, 2014 [135] ND sugar- or artificially-sweetened soda consumption chronic kidney disease incidence RCTs, case–control, cross-sectional or cohort studies provided odds ratios, relative risks, hazard ratios or standardized incidence ratios with 95% confidence intervals June 2014 MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CENTRAL
Hendriksen, 2011 [276] ND added sugar and intense sweeteners beneficial and hazardous health effects ND written in English or Dutch language October 2008 ND
Imamura, 2016 [161] adults without diabetes artificially sweetened beverages incidence of type 2 diabetes prospective studies no language or time limitations May 2013;
updated: February 2014
Ovid; Web of Science
Miller, 2014 [181] generally healthy population low-calorie sweeteners from foods or beverages or as tabletop sweeteners body weight or body composition RCTs and prospective cohort studies a minimum study duration of 2 weeks for RCTs and 6 months for prospective cohorts September 2013 MEDLINE
Pereira, 2014 [180] no limitation ASB (or sugar- sweetened beverages) consumption body weight or body fat RCTs and prospective cohort studies observational studies min. Duration of 6 months March 2012 MEDLINE
Pereira, 2013 [277] ND DB/ASB consumption body weight, obesity risk, type 2 diabetes, or cardiovascular disease ND studies in English language September 2011 MEDLINE
Reid, 2016 [183] pregnant women, infants, or children (<12 years of age) early life NNS exposure (all types of NNS consumption) long-term metabolic health (BMI, birth weight, growth
velocity, incidence of overweight/
obesity, change in adiposity, incidence of impaired
glucose tolerance, metabolic
syndrome, insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes)
RCTs and prospective cohort studies min. Study duration of 6 months July 2015 MEDLINE; EMBASE; Cochrane Library
Rogers, 2016 [182] humans and animals low-energy sweeteners consumption energy intake, body weight, BMI ND no language or time limitations February 2015 MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science
Romo-Romo, 2016 [24] adults NNS consumption glucose metabolism and appetite regulating hormones, development of metabolic chronic diseases observational studies and clinical trials follow up of at least 3 years in cohort studies April 2015; updated: March 2016 MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Trip Database
Russel, 2016 [278] adult type 2 diabetes patients or obese subjects nutrients (incl. Low-calorie sweeteners) postprandial hyperglycemia intervention trials studies in English language ND MEDLINE, Web of Science
Shankar, 2013 [279] ND NNS consumption obesity/weight gain; diabetes; cardiometabolic indicators ND ND 2012 MEDLINE
Spencer, 2016 [280] humans and animals aspartame, saccharin or sucralose consumption fermentation, absorption, gastrointestinal symptoms ND full articles in English language June 2015 MEDLINE, EMBASE
Timpe Behnen, 2013 [281] diabetes patients acesulfame, aspartame,luo han guo, monk fruit, neotame, rebiana, saccharin, stevia, and sucralose diabetic control, including, but not limited to, blood glucose levels, postprandial blood glucose, HbA1c clinical studies studies in English language May 2012 MEDLINE, Scopus
Wiebe, 2011 [23] ND a sweetener (e.g. non-caloric sweetener) weight change, energy intake, lipids, HbA1C, insulin resistance parallel or crossover RCT follow-up at least 1 week in duration;
at least 10 participants per group,
no trials with placebo control
January 2011 MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library CENTRAL, CAB Global
Oliver, 2015 [85] ND aspartame, ace-K, cyclamic acid and its salts, steviol glycosides, neohesperidin DC, neotame, saccharine and its salts, sucralose,aspartame-acesulfame salt, thaumatin benefits and risks related to intense sweeteners meta-analysis, RCTs, quasi experimental, cohort, case-control, cross-sectional studies none ND MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Psychinfo
Onakpoya, 2015 [21] adult volunteers (>18 y) steviol glycoside cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, blood sugar, cholesterol) double-blind RCTs No age, language or time restrictions. Studies in which steviol glycosides were combined with other dietary supplements were excluded May 2014 MEDLINE, EMBASE, Amed, Cinahl, The Cochrane Library, Google Scholar
Poolsup, 2012 [282] patients with hypertension stevioside systolic and diastolic blood pressure control RCTs published in English language February 2012 MEDLINE, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Wiley Online Library
Ulbricht, 2010 [20] both adults and children stevia adverse effects, (pharmacology, kynetics, dosing, interactions, toxicology) no restriction (both in vivo and in vitro studies) no language restrictions ND AMED, CANCERLIT, CINAHL, CISCOM, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, HerbMed, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, NAPRALELT
Urban, 2015 [283] ND steviol glycosides and/or stevia leaf extracts of known concentrations allergic reactions no restriction (also animal and in vitro studies) ND October 2014 MEDLINE, Science Direct, Google Scholar
Wang, 2016 [284] adults, pregnant women and infants (>6 mo) FDA-approved sweeteners energy sensing by the brain; gut hormones that may influence energy homeostasis; satiety and preference f r taste; eating behavior; body weight and composition RCTs, non-RCT, not controlled trials, prospective cohorts English language; cancer patients were excluded ND MEDLINE
  1. Abbreviations: ASB artificially sweetened beverage, DB diet beverage, HbA1c glycosylated haemoglobin type A1C, ND not described, RCT randomized controlled trial; y, years; mo, months