Mikkila V, Rasanen L, Laaksonen MM, Juonala M, Viikari J, Pietinen P, et al. Long-term dietary patterns and carotid artery intima media thickness: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Br J Nutr. 2009;102(10):1507–12.
Bazzano LA, He J, Ogden LG, Loria C, Vupputuri S, Myers L, et al. Legume consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in US men and women: NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(21):2573–8.
Hodge AM, English DR, O’Dea K, Giles GG. Dietary patterns and diabetes incidence in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;165(6):603–10.
Villegas R, Gao YT, Yang G, Li HL, Elasy TA, Zheng W, et al. Legume and soy food intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(1):162–7.
Agurs-Collins T, Smoot D, Afful J, Makambi K, Adams-Campbell LL. Legume intake and reduced colorectal adenoma risk in African-Americans. J National Black Nurses’ Assoc. 2006;17(2):6–12.
Sievenpiper JL, Kendall CW, Esfahani A, Wong JM, Carleton AJ, Jiang HY, et al. Effect of non-oil-seed pulses on glycaemic control: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled experimental trials in people with and without diabetes. Diabetologia. 2009;52(8):1479–95.
Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Augustin LS, Mitchell S, Sahye-Pudaruth S, Blanco Mejia S, et al. Effect of legumes as part of a low glycemic index diet on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(21):1653–60.
Mollard RC, Luhovyy BL, Panahi S, Nunez M, Hanley A, Anderson GH. Regular consumption of pulses for 8 weeks reduces metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese adults. Br J Nutr. 2012;108 Suppl 1:S111–22.
McCrory MA, Hamaker BR, Lovejoy JC, Eichelsdoerfer PE. Pulse consumption, satiety, and weight management. Advances Nutri. 2010;1(1):17–30.
Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Taylor RH, Barker HM, Fielden H. Exceptionally low blood glucose response to dried beans: comparison with other carbohydrate foods. Br Med J. 1980;281(6240):578–80.
Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Taylor RH, Barker H, Fielden H, Baldwin JM, et al. Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981;34(3):362–6.
Coutinho M, Gerstein HC, Wang Y, Yusuf S. The relationship between glucose and incident cardiovascular events. A metaregression analysis of published data from 20 studies of 95,783 individuals followed for 12.4 years. Diabetes Care. 1999;22(2):233–40.
Levitan EB, Song Y, Ford ES, Liu S. Is nondiabetic hyperglycemia a risk factor for cardiovascular disease? A meta-analysis of prospective studies. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(19):2147–55.
Glucose tolerance and mortality: comparison of WHO and American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria. The DECODE study group. European Diabetes Epidemiology Group. Diabetes Epidemiology: Collaborative analysis Of Diagnostic criteria in Europe. Lancet. 1999;354(9179):617–21
Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Leeds AR, Gassull MA, Haisman P, Dilawari J, et al. Dietary fibres, fibre analogues, and glucose tolerance: importance of viscosity. Br Med J. 1978;1(6124):1392–4.
Champ MM. Non-nutrient bioactive substances of pulses. Br J Nutr. 2002;88 Suppl 3:S307–19.
American Diabetes A, Bantle JP, Wylie-Rosett J, Albright AL, Apovian CM, Clark NG, et al. Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2008;31 Suppl 1:S61–78.
Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert C, Dworatzek PD, Arcudi K, Gougeon R, Husein N, Sievenpiper JL, et al. Nutrition therapy. Can J Diab. 2013;37 Suppl 1:S45–55.
Mann JI, De Leeuw I, Hermansen K, Karamanos B, Karlstrom B, Katsilambros N, et al. Evidence-based nutritional approaches to the treatment and prevention of diabetes mellitus. Nutr Metabol Cardio Dis. 2004;14(6):373–94.
Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, de Jesus JM, Houston Miller N, Hubbard VS, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014;129(25 Suppl 2):S76–99.
Wolever TM, Jenkins DJ, Jenkins AL, Josse RG. The glycemic index: methodology and clinical implications. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54(5):846–54.
Atkinson FS, Foster-Powell K, Brand-Miller JC. International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2008. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(12):2281–3.
Schoch TJW EC. Preparation and properties of various legume starches. Cereal Chem. 1976;45:564–73.
Thompson LU, Yoon JH, Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Jenkins AL. Relationship between polyphenol intake and blood glucose response of normal and diabetic individuals. Am J Clin Nutr. 1984;39(5):745–51.
Chiasson JL, Josse RG, Gomis R, Hanefeld M, Karasik A, Laakso M. Acarbose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the STOP-NIDDM randomised trial. Lancet. 2002;359(9323):2072–7.
Chiasson JL, Josse RG, Gomis R, Hanefeld M, Karasik A, Laakso M. Acarbose treatment and the risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension in patients with impaired glucose tolerance: the STOP-NIDDM trial. JAMA. 2003;290(4):486–94.
Welch IM, Bruce C, Hill SE, Read NW. Duodenal and ileal lipid suppresses postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses in man: possible implications for the dietary management of diabetes mellitus. Clin Sci. 1987;72(2):209–16.
Jackson KG, Wolstencroft EJ, Bateman PA, Yaqoob P, Williams CM. Acute effects of meal fatty acids on postprandial NEFA, glucose and apo E response: implications for insulin sensitivity and lipoprotein regulation? Br J Nutr. 2005;93(5):693–700.
Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Vuksan V, Faulkner D, Augustin LS, Mitchell S, et al. Effect of lowering the glycemic load with canola oil on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(7):1806–14.
Mehio ZH-B N, Habbal Z. Glycemic and insulinemic responses of normal subjects to selected meals commonly consumed in the Middle East. J Nutr Environ Med. 1997;7:275–86.
Wolever TM, Jenkins DJ, Thompson LU, Wong GS, Josse RG. Effect of canning on the blood glucose response to beans in patients with type 2 diabetes. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr. 1987;41(2):135–40.
Panlasigui LN, Panlilio LM, Madrid JC. Glycaemic response in normal subjects to five different legumes commonly used in the Philippines. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 1995;46(2):155–60.
International Organization for Standardization. Food products - Determination of the glycaemic index (GI) and recommendation for food classification: ISO 26642. 2010.
Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Ocana AM, Vuksan V, Cunnane SC, Jenkins M, et al. Metabolic effects of reducing rate of glucose ingestion by single bolus versus continuous sipping. Diabetes. 1990;39(7):775–81.
Kendall CW, West SG, Augustin LS, Esfahani A, Vidgen E, Bashyam B, et al. Acute effects of pistachio consumption on glucose and insulin, satiety hormones and endothelial function in the metabolic syndrome. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014;68(3):370–5.
Nilsson A, Radeborg K, Bjorck I. Effects on cognitive performance of modulating the postprandial blood glucose profile at breakfast. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66(9):1039–43.
Hanefeld M, Duetting E, Bramlage P. Cardiac implications of hypoglycaemia in patients with diabetes - a systematic review. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013;12:135.
Barclay AW, Petocz P, McMillan-Price J, Flood VM, Prvan T, Mitchell P, et al. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and chronic disease risk--a meta-analysis of observational studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(3):627–37.
Livesey G, Taylor R, Hulshof T, Howlett J. Glycemic response and health--a systematic review and meta-analysis: relations between dietary glycemic properties and health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(1):258S–68S.
Ma XY, Liu JP, Song ZY. Glycemic load, glycemic index and risk of cardiovascular diseases: meta-analyses of prospective studies. Atherosclerosis. 2012;223(2):491–6.
Brand-Miller J, Hayne S, Petocz P, Colagiuri S. Low-glycemic index diets in the management of diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(8):2261–7.
Giacco R, Parillo M, Rivellese AA, Lasorella G, Giacco A, D’Episcopo L, et al. Long-term dietary treatment with increased amounts of fiber-rich low-glycemic index natural foods improves blood glucose control and reduces the number of hypoglycemic events in type 1 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2000;23(10):1461–6.
Bouche C, Rizkalla SW, Luo J, Vidal H, Veronese A, Pacher N, et al. Five-week, low-glycemic index diet decreases total fat mass and improves plasma lipid profile in moderately overweight nondiabetic men. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(5):822–8.
Ebbeling CB, Leidig MM, Sinclair KB, Hangen JP, Ludwig DS. A reduced-glycemic load diet in the treatment of adolescent obesity. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157(8):773–9.
Larsen TM, Dalskov SM, van Baak M, Jebb SA, Papadaki A, Pfeiffer AF, et al. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(22):2102–13.
McMillan-Price J, Petocz P, Atkinson F, O’Neill K, Samman S, Steinbeck K, et al. Comparison of 4 diets of varying glycemic load on weight loss and cardiovascular risk reduction in overweight and obese young adults: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(14):1466–75.
Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating Nutrition and Physical Activity. Nordic Council of Ministers, 2014