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Table 1 Abnormalities in the gastrointestinal endocrine cells that regulate appetite in IBS patients

From: Diet in irritable bowel syndrome

Gastrointestinal segment Hormone Cell density Hormone function
IBS-D IBS-M IBS-C
Stomach Ghrelin Increased Unchanged Decreased Orexigenic (increases appetite)
Serotonin Increased Unchanged Decreased Anorexigenic (decreases appetite)
Duodenum CCK Decreased Unchanged Unchanged Anorexigenic (decreases appetite)
Serotonin Unchanged Unchanged Unchanged See above
Ileum PYY Unchanged Unchanged Increased Anorexigenic (decreases appetite)
Serotonin Decreased Decreased Decreased See above
Colon PYY Decreased Unknown Decreased See above
Serotonin Decreased Unknown Decreased See above
Rectum PYY Decreased Decreased Decreased See above
Enteroglucagon Decreased Unknown Decreased Anorexigenic (decreases appetite)
Serotonin Unchanged Unknown Unchanged See above
  1. IBS-D, IBS patients with diarrhoea as the predominant symptom; IBS-M, IBS patients with alternating diarrhea and constipation; IBS-C, IBS patients with constipation as the predominant symptom.