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Table 4 Appetite sensations, breath H 2 and energy intake after breakfast and lunch, following evening test- or reference meal 1

From: Effects of indigestible carbohydrates in barley on glucose metabolism, appetite and voluntary food intake over 16 h in healthy adults

Test variables WWB BK %2
Breakfast (0-210 min)    
Energy intake, breakfast (kcal) 415 ± 38.0 400 ± 30.7 -4
Hunger, AUC 0-120 min (min·mm) 3 330 ± 343 2 960 ± 372 -11
Hunger, AUC 120-210 min (min·mm) 4 750 ± 380 4 090 ± 395* -14
Satiety, AUC 0-120 min (min·mm) 6 130 ± 384 6 510 ± 365 6
Satiety, AUC 120-210 min (min·mm) 2 780 ± 425 3 180 ± 342 14
Desire to eat, AUC 0-120 min (min·mm) 3 600 ± 413 3 310 ± 488 -8
Desire to eat, AUC 120-210 min (min·mm) 5 000 ± 433 4 530 ± 477 -10
H2, mean 0-120 min (ppm) 11 ± 2.1 33 ± 4.4*** 200
Lunch (210-330 min)    
Energy intake, lunch (kcal) 804 ± 98.4 709 ± 74.0* -12
H2, mean 210-330 min (ppm) 7.9 ± 1.3 29 ± 4.7*** 267
Breakfast + Lunch (0-330 min)    
Energy intake, cumulative (kcal) 1 220 ± 130 1 110 ± 93.23 -9
Hunger, AUC 0-330 min (min·mm) 10 800 ± 892 9 510 ± 997* -12
Satiety, AUC 0-330 min (min·mm) 15 810 ± 1060 16 540 ± 917 5
Desire to eat, AUC 0-330 min (min·mm) 11 700 ± 1 140 10 800 ± 1 220 -8
H2, mean 0-330 min (ppm) 8.8 ± 1.5 31 ± 4.4*** 248
  1. 1 Values are means ± SEM. *Different from WWB P < 0.05; ***P < 0.001. AUC, area under curve; BK, barley kernel; H2, breath hydrogen; WWB, white wheat bread.
  2. 2 The percentage change is calculated as the difference from the WWB to the BK.
  3. 3 P = 0.07.