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Table 1 Characteristics of Male and Female Participants from the 2018 and 2019 International Food Policy Study (N = 42,108)

From: Weight gain attempts and diet modification efforts among adults in five countries: a cross-sectional study

  Overall (N = 42,108) Males n = 20,641 Females n = 21,467 pa
  M (SD) / n (%) M (SD) / n (%) M (SD) / n (%)  
Age 45.5 (16.8) 45.2 (16.8) 45.8 (16.7)  < .001
Race/ethnicityb     .374
  Majority group 34,414 (78.5%) 16,855 (77.8%) 17,559 (79.3%)  
  Minority group 7,199 (20.3%) 3,557 (21.0%) 3,642 (19.5)  
  Not stated 495 (1.2%) 229 (2.2%) 266 (1.2)  
Educationc      < .001
  Low 11,875 (43.1%) 5,361 (40.9%) 6,514 (45.1%)  
  Medium 11,360 (21.8%) 5,317 (21.4%) 6,043 (22.2%)  
  High 18,730 (34.8%) 9,893 (37.3%) 8,837 (32.4%)  
  Not stated 143 (0.4%) 70 (0.4%) 73 (0.4%)  
BMI category (kg/m2)      < .001
  Underweight (< 18.5) 1,173 (3.0%) 382 (2.2%) 791 (3.7%)  
  Normal weight (≥ 18.5 to < 25.0) 14,660 (33.9%) 6,640 (31.9%) 8,020 (35.8%)  
  Overweight (≥ 25.0 to < 30.0) 12,048 (27.9%) 7,127 (33.0%) 4,921 (23.0%)  
  Obesity (≥ 30.0) 14,227 (35.2%) 6,492 (32.9%) 7,735 (37.4%)  
Country      < .001
  Canada 8,317 (19.7%) 4,053 (20.1%) 4,264 (19.3%)  
  Australia 7,598 (18.1%) 3,721 (18.5%) 3,877 (17.8%)  
  United Kingdom 9,267 (22.0%) 4,521 (22.0%) 4,746 (22.0%)  
  United States 8,577 (20.4%) 4,039 (20.1%) 4,538 (20.6%)  
  Mexico 8,349 (19.8%) 4,307 (19.3%) 4,042 (20.3%)  
Weight gain attempts, past 12 months 2,982 (7.9%) 1,900 (10.4%) 1,082 (5.4%)  < .001
  1. Note: Frequencies represent observed counts which may not directly match weighted percentages. Percentages are weighted using sample weights
  2. M Mean, SD Standard deviation, BMI Body mass index
  3. aDifferences between sexes were determined using chi-square tests and independent samples t-tests
  4. bRace/ethnicity categories in each country as per census questions asked in each country: Australia: majority = only speaks English at home, minority = speaks a language besides English at home; Canada: majority = “White (European descent)”, minority = any other race/ethnicity; Mexico: majority = nonindigenous, minority = indigenous; United Kingdom: majority = “White”, minority = any other race/ethnicity; United States: majority = “White”, minority = any other race/ethnicity
  5. cEducation was categorized as “low” (i.e., completed secondary school or less), “medium” (i.e., some postsecondary qualifications), or “high” (i.e., university degree or higher) according to country-specific criteria of the highest level of formal education attained