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Table 4 Comparison of Lower (< 400 mg/day) and High (≥400 mg/day) Caffeine Consumers

From: Prevalence of caffeine consumers, daily caffeine consumption, and factors associated with caffeine use among active duty United States military personnel

Variable Strata Prevalence of High Caffeine Consumers
(% ± SE)
Univariable Analysis Multivariable Analysis
n Odds Ratio (95%CI) n Odds Ratio
(95%CI)
Gender Men 17.1 ± 0.3 20,040 1.00 18,537 1.00
Women 8.7 ± 0.5 3135 0.46 (0.41–0.53) 2906 0.68 (0,.59–0.78)
Age 18–24 years 12.6 ± 0.6 3615 1.00 3341 1.00
25–29 years 13.6 ± 0.5 4746 1.09 (0.96–1.24) 4435 1.12 (0.95–1.30)
30–39 years 17.3 ± 0.4 9875 1.45 (1.30–1.62) 9189 1.46 (1.25–1.70)
≥40 years 18.0 ± 0.6 4821 1.53 (1.35–1.73) 4478 1.54 (1.25–1.85)
Formal Education Some HS/HS grad 17.8 ± 0.7 3099 1.00 2831 1.00
Some college 16.2 ± 0.4 9836 0.89 (0.80–0.99) 9109 0.87 (0.77–0.99)
College degree 15.1 ± 0.4 10,234 0.82 (0.74–0.91) 9503 0.82 (0.70–0.96)
Race / Ethnicity White 18.1 ± 0.3 14,827 1.00 13,751 1.00
Hispanic 13.9 ± 0.6 3530 0.73 (0.66–0.81) 3280 0.75 (0.66–0.84)
Back 7.2 ± 0.6 2.140 0.35 (0.30–0.42) 1947 0.36 (0.30–0.44)
Other 13.6 ± 0.7 2678 0.71 (0.63–0.80) 2465 0.73 (0.64–0.83)
Body mass index < 25.0 kg/m2 12.0 ± 0.4 6629 1.00 6282 1.00
25.0–29.9 kg/m2 16.8 ± 0.3 12,163 1.48 (1.36–1.62) 11,462 1.28 (1.16–1.40)
≥30.0 kg/m2 19.3 ± 0.6 3956 1.76 (1.58–1.96) 3699 1.48 (1.32–1.67)
Aerobic exercise duration < 90 min/wk 15.1 ± 0.5 6120 1.00 5555 1.00
90–180 min/wk 15.4 ± 0.5 6560 1.02 (0.92–1.12) 6100 1.03 (0.93–1.15)
181–300 min/wk 16.6 ± 0.5 5218 1.12 (1.01–1.23) 4879 1.14 (1.02–1.28)
> 300 min/wk. 16.9 ± 0.5 5277 1.14 (1.03–1.26) 4909 1.24 (1.11–1.40)
Resistance training duration ≤45 min/wk 17.1 ± 0.5 6650 1.00 5965 1.00
46–135 min/wk 15.5 ± 0.5 5636 0.89 (0.81–0.98) 5257 0.90 (0.81–1.00)
136–300 min/wk 15.3 ± 0.5 5859 0.87 (0.79–0.96) 5477 0.83 (0.75–0.93)
≥301 min/wk 15.5 ± 0.5 5030 0.89 (0.80–0.98) 4744 0.80 (0.71–0.90)
Smoking Never 12.2 ± 0.3 14,177 1.00 13,359 1.00
Former user 20.5 ± 0.6 4475 1.86 (1.70–2.03) 4117 1.42 (1.28–1.58)
Current user 23.5 ± 0.7 4222 2.21 (2.03–2.41) 3967 1.79 (1.62–1.97)
Smokeless tobacco use Never 13.7 ± 0.3 17,597 1.00 16,767 1.00
Former user 23.2 ± 1.0 1959 1.90 (1.70–2.13) 1861 1.25 (1.10–1.42)
Current user 23.7 ± 0.8 2938 1.95 (1.78–2.15) 2815 1.28 (1.15–1.42)
Alcohol intake 0 ml/wk 14.3 ± 0.5 6175 1.00 5533 1.00
0.23–24.85 ml/wk. 11.8 ± 0.4 5486 0.80 (0.72–0.89) 5099 0.79 (0.70–0.89)
24.86–71.69 ml/wk. 14.3 ± 0.5 5696 1.00 (0.90–1.11) 5353 0.87 (0.78–0.97)
≥71.70 ml/wk 23.3 ± 0.6 5817 1.83 (1.66–2.01) 5458 1.42 (1.28–1.58)
Sleep ≥7 h/night 12.7 ± 0.4 8530 1.00   
5–6 h/night 19.3 ± 0.4 9110 1.65 (1.52–1.79) a a
< 4 h/night 25.1 ± 1.4 918 2.30 (1.95–2.70)   
Rank Junior enlisted, E1–E4 12.0 ± 0.8 1869 1.00 1735 1.00
Mid enlisted, E4–E6 15.8 ± 0.4 9891 1.37 (1.18–1.60) 9129 1.01 (0.84–1.21)
Senior enlisted, E7–E9 19.3 ± 0..6 3971 1.76 (1,50–2.07) 3653 1.05 (0.85–1.30)
Warrant officer, WO1-O5 17.1 ± 1.6 537 1.52 (1.17–1.98) 501 0.84 (0.61–1.16)
Junior officer, O1–O3 14.1 ± 0.6 3436 1.20 (1.01–1.42) 3266 0.91 (0.72–1.15)
Senior officer, O4–O7 16.3 ± 0.6 3471 1.43 (1.21–1.69) 3159 0.94 (0.73–1.20)
Occupation assignment group Combat arms 18.5 ± 0.5 5742 1.00 5460 1.00
Combat support 15.3 ± 0.4 8992 0.79 (0.73–0.87) 8567 0.91 (0.83–1.00)
Combat service support 14.9 ± 0.4 7881 0.77 (0.70–0.84) 7416 0.93 (0.84–1.02)
Service branch Air Force 12.0 ± 0.4 8443 1.00 7777 1.00
Army 17.0 ± 0.5 6907 1.50 (1.37–1.64) 6494 1.28 (1.15–1.42)
Marine Corps 19.9 ± 0.8 2707 1.82 (1.62–2.04) 2534 1.58 (1.38–1.79)
Navy 18.9 ± 0.6 5118 1.71 (1.56–1.88) 4638 1.52 (1.37–1.69)
  1. aNot inclued in multivariable analysis because of amount of missing data
  2. Abbreviation: HS high school