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Table 3 Characteristics associated with prevalence (≥1 time/week) of specific caffeine products among military personnel.a Multivariable logistic regression, data are odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals in parenthesis

From: Prevalence of caffeine consumers, daily caffeine consumption, and factors associated with caffeine use among active duty United States military personnel

Variable Strata Caffeine Products Consumed ≥ 1 Time/Week [Odds ratio (95%confidence interval)]
Any Caffeine Product
(Model 1)
Coffee
(Model 2)
Tea
(Model 3)
Soda
(Model 4)
Energy Drink
(Model 5)
Gum or Medication
(Model 6)
Gender Men 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Women 1.52 (1.34–1.72) 1.43 (1.31–1.56) 2.14 (1.97–2.32) 0.71 (0.66–0.77) 0.64 (0.58–0.71) 2.10 (1.78–2.49)
Age 18–24 years 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
25–29 years 1.25 (1.10–1.44) 1.34 (1.21–1.49) 1.03 (0.92–1.14) 0.93 (0.84–1.02) 1.06 (0.96–1.17) 0.99 (0.77–1.26)
30–39 years 1.69 (1.46–1.95) 1.59 (1.43–1.76) 1.08 (0.97–1.21) 1.05 (0.95–1.15) 1.01 (0.91–1.13) 1.34 (1.05–1.70)
≥40 years 1.95 (1.61–2.38) 1.79 (1.56–2.05) 1.36 (1.19–1.55) 1.08 (0.96–1.23) 0.61 (0.53–0.70) 1.54 (1.15–2.05)
Formal Education Some HS/HS grad 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Some college 1.07 (0.94–1.22) 1.27 (1.16–1.40) 1.13 (1.02–1.25) 0.84 (0.77–0.92) 0.93 (0.85–1.02) 0.93 (0.75–1.15)
College degree 1.09 (0.92–1.30) 1.38 (1.22–1.56) 1.16 (1.03–1.31) 0.74 (0.66–0.83) 0.75 (0.67–0.85) 0.80 (0.62–1.04)
Race / Ethnicity White 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Hispanic 0.64 (0.57–0.72) 0.87 (0.80–0.95) 0.88 (0.81–0.96) 0.86 (0.79–0.92) 0.80 (0.74–0.87) 0.75 (0.62–0.91)
Back 0.27 (0.24–0.31) 0.36 (0.33–0.40) 1.08 (0.98–1.19) 0.71 (0.64–0.77) 0.47 (0.42–0.53) 0.84 (0.68–1.03)
Other 0.65 (0.58–0.74) 0.90 (0.82–0.99) 1.35 (1.23–1.47) 0.88 (0.81–0.96) 0.78 (0.72–0.87) 0.74 (0.59–0.91)
Body mass index < 25.0 kg/m2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
25.0–29.9 kg/m2 1.19 (1.08–1.30) 1.08 (1.01–1.16) 0.96 (0.90–1.03) 1.09 (1.02–1.15) 1.29 (1.20–1.38) 1.20 (1.02–1.40)
≥30.0 kg/m2 1.46 (1.27–1.67) 1.08 (0.99–1.19) 1.00 (0.91–1.09) 1.43 (1.32–1.56) 1.58 (1.44–1.73) 1.61 (1.33–1.95)
Aerobic exercise duration < 90 min/wk 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
90–180 min/wk 1.11 (0.99–1.25) 1.07 (0.99–1.16) 1.12 (1.04–1.21) 1.05 (0.98–1.13) 1.01 (0.93–1.09) 0.93 (0.78–1.11)
181–300 min/wk 1.07 (0.95–1.22) 1.05 (0.96–1.14) 1.14 (1.05–1.24) 1.01 (0.93–1.09) 1.00 (0.92–1.09) 0.86 (0.71–1.03)
> 300 min/wk. 0.95 (0.84–1.08) 1.00 (0.91–1.09) 1.22 (1.12–1.33) 0.93 (0.86–1.01) 0.88 (0.81–0.96) 1.07 (0.88–1.29)
Resistance training duration ≤45 min/wk 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
46–135 min/wk 1.08 (0.96–1.23) 1.16 (1.07–1.26) 0.99 (0.92–1.07) 0.85 (0.79–0.91) 1.03 (0.94–1.12) 1.00 (0.84–1.19)
136–300 min/wk 1.06 (0.93–1.20) 1.22 (1.12–1.32) 0.93 (0.86–1.01) 0.63 (0.59–0.68) 1.11 (1.02–1.21) 0.97 (0.81–1.15)
≥301 min/wk 0.75 (0.66–0.85) 0.98 (0.89–1.07) 0.74 (0.68–0.81) 0.49 (0.45–0.53) 1.30 (1.19–1.43) 0.88 (0.72–1.08)
Smoking Never 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Former user 1.77 (1.54–2.05) 1.74 (1.59–1.90) 1.05 (0.97–1.14) 1.07 (1.00–1.16) 1.16 (1.07–1.26) 1.17 (0.98–1.38)
Current user 2.00 (1.73–2.31) 1.68 (1.53–1.83) 1.09 (1.00–1.18) 1.45 (1.34–1.56) 1.57 (1.45–1.70) 1.13 (0.95–1.35)
Smokeless tobacco use Never 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Former user 1.88 (1.48–2.39) 1.57 (1.37–1.79) 0.88 (0.78–0.98) 0.90 (0.82–1.00) 1.20 (1.08–1.33) 1.04 (0.82–1.32)
Current user 1.58 (1.32–1.88) 1.44 (1.30–1.60) 0.91 (0.83–0.99) 1.07 (0.98–1.16) 1.52 (1.40–1.66) 0.99 (0.81–1.21)
Alcohol intake 0 ml/wk 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
0.23–24.85 ml/wk. 2.16 (1.94–2.40) 1.85 (1.71–1.99) 1.38 (1.27–1.49) 1.19 (1.10–1.28) 1.08 (0.99–1.17) 0.98 (0.81–1.17)
24.86–71.69 ml/wk. 3.39 (3.00–3.84) 2.36 (2.18–2.56) 1.51 (1.39–1.64) 1.39 (1.29–1.49) 1.39 (1.28–1.51) 1.15 (0.96–1.38)
≥71.70 ml/wk 5.15 (4.44–5.98) 3.10 (2.84–3.38) 1.68 (1.54–1.82) 1.50 (1.39–1.62) 1.76 (1.62–1.92) 1.36 (1.14–1.63)
Rank Junior enlisted, E1–E4 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Mid enlisted, E4–E6 1.13 (0.98–1.30) 1.07 (0.96–1.20) 0.99 (0.87–1.11) 1.02 (0.92–1.14) 1.03 (0.92–1.16) 1.13 (0.85–1.50)
Senior enlisted, E7–E9 1.38 (1.12–1.69) 1.26 (1.08–1.46) 0.90 (0.77–1.04) 0.99 (0.86–1.13) 0.87 (0.75–1.01) 0.99 (0.70–1.38)
Warrant officer, WO1-O5 1.86 (1.23–2.79) 1.62 (1.25–2.10) 0.88 (0.69–1.11) 0.87 (0.70–1.08) 0.81 (0.64–1.03) 0.93 (0.56–1.56)
Junior officer, O1–O3 0.97 (0.79–1.20) 1.20 (1.03–1.40) 1.06 (0.90–1.24) 0.77 (0.67–0.89) 0.56 (0.48–0.66) 0.84 (0.58–1.22)
Senior officer, O4–O7 1.36 (1.06–1.74) 1.27 (1.07–1.51) 0.98 (0.83–1.16) 0.94 (0.80–1.10) 0.41 (0.34–0.49) 0.78 (0.53–1.15)
Occupation assignment group Combat arms 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Combat support 1.01 (0.90–1.13) 0.92 (0.85–1.00) 1.05 (0.97–1.13) 1.04 (0.97–1.12) 0.96 (0.89–1.04) 1.09 (0.92–1.29)
Combat service support 1.00 (0.89–1.12) 0.96 (0.89–1.04) 1.00 (0.93–1.08) 1.11 (1.03–1.19) 0.92 (0.85–1.00) 1.12 (0.95–1.33)
Service branch Air Force 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Army 1.02 (0.92–1.14) 1.03 (0.95–1.12) 0.93 (0.87–1.00) 0.93 (0.87–0.99) 1.11 (1.03–1.20) 1.18 (1.00–1.40)
Marine Corps 0.98 (0.85–1.13) 1.09 (0.98–1.20) 0.90 (0.81–0.99) 0.88 (0.80–0.96) 1.26 (1.15–1.39) 1.03 (0.82–1.30)
Navy 1.03 (0.91–1.16) 1.23 (1.13–1.33) 1.10 (1.02–1.19) 0.90 (0.83–0.97) 0.90 (0.82–0.98) 1.18 (0.99–1.40)
  1. Abbreviation: HS high school
  2. aAll six models are adjusted for gender, age, formal education, race/ethnicity, body mass index, aerobic exercise duration, resistance exercise duration, smoking, smokeless tobacco use, alcohol intake, rank, occupational assignment group, and service branch