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Table 5 Contribution of food items (at least 10%) to nutrient intakes of 6–23 month old children in lent fasting and non-fasting periods in rural districts of Tigray Region, Ethiopia

From: The influence of fasting on energy and nutrient intake and their corresponding food sources among 6-23 months old children in rural communities with high burden of stunting from Northern Ethiopia

Nutrient Food groups Lent Fasting Period (n = 570) Non-Fasting Period (n = 551)
6–8 months 9–11 months 12–23 months 6–8 months 9–11 months 12–23 months
Energy, Kcal
Energy, Kcal
Cereals Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge & injera) (15%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (25.3%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (28.3%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (30.3%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (35.9%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (33.6%)
Tef: mixed, whit & red, (gruel & porridge) (29%) Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (15.7%) Sorghum (60%) + tef (40%) enjera (11.3%) Wheat: mixed Bread, enjera & Porridge (10.4%) Wheat: mixed (Bread, enjera & Porridge) (10.7%)
  Com (maize): white & yellow (porridge, bread, gruel & enjera) (11.9%) Com (maize): yellow & white (gruel, bread, enjera & Porridge) (10.3%)
Eggs Egg (Boiled & fried) (10.3%) Egg (Boiled & fried) (10.9%) Egg (Boiled & fried) (13.7%)
Protein, g Cereals Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge & injera) (17.7%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (20.5%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (22.7%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (20%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (25.7%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (23.6%)
Tef: mixed, white, red, (gruel & porridge)
(23.2%)
Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (18.4%) Wheat: mixed (Bread, enjera & Porridge) (10.1%)
  Sorghum (60%) + tef (40%) enjera (14.2%)
  Com (maize). Zea mays L.: white & yellow (porridge, bread, gruel & enjera) (10.5%)
Eggs Egg (Boiled & fried) (12.7%) Egg (Boiled & fried) (10.7%) Egg (Boiled & fried) (22%) Egg (Boiled & fried) (29.3%) Egg (Boiled & fried) (25.2%)
Calcium, mg Cereals Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge & injera) (11.1%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (14.6%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (13%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (12.8%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (19.8%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (17.3%)
Tef: mixed, white, red, (gruel & porridge) (33.4%) Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (21.2%) Tef: mixed, white & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (11.7%) Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, enjera & porridge) (12.4%) Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, enjera & porridge) (12.6%) Sorghum (60%) + tef (40%) enjera (17.5%)
Sorghum (60%) + tef (40%): (enjera) (12%) Sorghum (60%) + tef (40%) (22.8%) Sorghum (60%) + tef (40%): (enjera) (10%)
Legumes & nuts Sesame and Linseed: (roasted & dried) (10.2%) Sesame and Linseed: (roasted & dried) (14.5%)
Eggs Egg (Boiled & fried) (18%) Egg (Boiled & fried) (18.8%) Egg (Boiled & fried) (19.2%)
Dairy products Milk (boiled)
(27.4%)
Milk (boiled & Whey) (16%) Milk (boiled & Whey) (10.6%) Milk (boiled) (26.1%) Milk (boiled & Whey) (14.9%) Milk (boiled & Whey) (11%)
Iron, mg Cereals Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge &
injera) (10%)
Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (16.5%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (19.5%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (18.9%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (21.2%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (22.5%)
Tef: mixed, white, red, (gruel & porridge) (74.5%) Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (43.7%) Tef: mixed, white & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (28.6%) Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, enjera & porridge) (29.3%) Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (24.6%) Tef: mixed, white & red, (gruel, enjera & porridge) (15.4%)
Sorghum (75%) + maize (25%): (enjera) (12.9%) Sorghum (50%) + maize (50%) (enjera & bread) (15.2%) Sorghum (75%) + maize (25%): (enjera & unleavened bread) (23.8%) Sorghum (50%) + maize (50%) (enjera & bread) (18.4%)
Eggs Egg (Boiled & fried) (10.6%)
Zinc, mg Cereals Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (18.1%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (21.4%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (19.7%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (25.1%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (26.1%)
Tef: mixed, white, red, (gruel & porridge) (63.1%) Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (30.9%) Tef: mixed, white & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (19.1%) Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, enjera & porridge) (20.8%) Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (19.3%)
Com (maize): white & yellow (porridge, bread, gruel & enjera) (12.2%) Com (maize): white & yellow (porridge, bread, gruel & enjera) (12.8%) Com (maize): yellow & white (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (11.4%)
Eggs Egg (Boiled & fried) (19.4%) Egg (Boiled & fried) (17.1%) Egg (Boiled & fried) (16.1%)
Vitamin A, μg Eggs Egg (Boiled & fried) (26.7%) Egg (Boiled & fried) (65.57%) Egg (Boiled & fried) (80.5%) Egg (Boiled & fried) (64.9%) Egg (Boiled & fried) (96%) Egg (Boiled & fried) (92.1%)
Fruits Mango: fresh (31.9%) Mango: fresh (10.5%)
Thiamin, mg Cereals Sorghum: mixed, red & White
(porridge, injera & bread) (41.7%)
Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (32.3%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (37.8%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (44.2) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (46.2%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (38.8%)
Tef: white & mixed (porridge) (25%) Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (17.7%) Wheat (50%) + maize (50%): (thick enjera, unleavened bread) (10.3%)
Wheat: mixed & white (bread & (porridge) (16.7%) Wheat: mixed (Bread, enjera & Porridge) (14.5%) Wheat: mixed (Bread, enjera & Porridge) (16.4%) Wheat: mixed (Bread, enjera & Porridge) 23.3%) Wheat: mixed (Bread & Porridge) (9.9%) Wheat: mixed (Bread, enjera & Porridge) (10.3%)
Com (maize): white & yellow (porridge, bread, gruel & enjera) (16.1%) Com (maize): white & yellow (porridge, bread & enjera) (11.6%)
Eggs Egg (Boiled & fried) (16.3%) Egg (Boiled & fried) (25.3%) Egg (Boiled & fried) (21.1%)
Riboflavin, mg Cereals Sorghum: mixed. (porridge & injera) (25%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (31.6%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (31.7%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (41.7%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (51.1%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (36.7%)
Tef: mixed, white & red, (bread, enjera & porridge) (29%) Tef: mixed, white & red, (bread, enjera & porridge) (20%) Tef: mixed, white & red, (bread, enjera & porridge) (10.9%)
Wheat: mixed (Bread, enjera & Porridge) (15.8%) Wheat: mixed (Bread, enjera & Porridge) (16.9%) Wheat: mixed (Bread, enjera & Porridge) (15%)
Eggs Egg (fried) (12.5%) Egg (Boiled & fried) (16.7%) Egg (Boiled & fried) (10.5%) Egg (Boiled & fried) (22.2%) Egg (Boiled & fried) (15.7%)
Dairy products Milk (boiled) (50%) Milk (boiled) (33.3%)
Niacin, mg Cereals Sorghum: mixed, red & White (porridge, injera & bread) (28.6%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (52.5%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (48.5%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (43.4) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (58.6%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (58.4%)
Tef: mixed, white & red (gruel & porridge) (47.2%) Tef: mixed, white & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (19.8%) Tef: mixed, white & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (12.6%) Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, enjera & porridge) (15%) Tef: mixed, white& red, (gruel, enjera & porridge) (12.5%)
Wheat: mixed (Bread, enjera & Porridge) (11.2%) Wheat: (mixed & red) (Bread, enjera & Porridge) (12.6%)
Vitamin C, mg Cereals Sorghum: mixed, red & White (porridge, injera & bread) (52%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (64.6%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (65.4%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (53.1%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (74.5%) Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (73.3%)
Tef: mixed, white & red (gruel) (11.3%)
Fruits Mango fresh (30.7%) Mango fresh (22.3%)