Skip to main content

Table 5 Contribution of food items (at least 10%) to nutrient intakes of 6–23 month old children in lent fasting and non-fasting periods in rural districts of Tigray Region, Ethiopia

From: The influence of fasting on energy and nutrient intake and their corresponding food sources among 6-23 months old children in rural communities with high burden of stunting from Northern Ethiopia

Nutrient

Food groups

Lent Fasting Period (n = 570)

Non-Fasting Period (n = 551)

6–8 months

9–11 months

12–23 months

6–8 months

9–11 months

12–23 months

Energy, Kcal

Energy, Kcal

Cereals

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge & injera) (15%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (25.3%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (28.3%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (30.3%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (35.9%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (33.6%)

Tef: mixed, whit & red, (gruel & porridge) (29%)

Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (15.7%)

Sorghum (60%) + tef (40%) enjera (11.3%)

Wheat: mixed Bread, enjera & Porridge (10.4%)

Wheat: mixed (Bread, enjera & Porridge) (10.7%)

 

Com (maize): white & yellow (porridge, bread, gruel & enjera) (11.9%)

Com (maize): yellow & white (gruel, bread, enjera & Porridge) (10.3%)

Eggs

Egg (Boiled & fried) (10.3%)

Egg (Boiled & fried) (10.9%)

Egg (Boiled & fried) (13.7%)

Protein, g

Cereals

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge & injera) (17.7%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (20.5%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (22.7%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (20%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (25.7%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (23.6%)

Tef: mixed, white, red, (gruel & porridge)

(23.2%)

Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (18.4%)

Wheat: mixed (Bread, enjera & Porridge) (10.1%)

 

Sorghum (60%) + tef (40%) enjera (14.2%)

 

Com (maize). Zea mays L.: white & yellow (porridge, bread, gruel & enjera) (10.5%)

Eggs

Egg (Boiled & fried) (12.7%)

Egg (Boiled & fried) (10.7%)

Egg (Boiled & fried) (22%)

Egg (Boiled & fried) (29.3%)

Egg (Boiled & fried) (25.2%)

Calcium, mg

Cereals

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge & injera) (11.1%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (14.6%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (13%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (12.8%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (19.8%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (17.3%)

Tef: mixed, white, red, (gruel & porridge) (33.4%)

Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (21.2%)

Tef: mixed, white & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (11.7%)

Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, enjera & porridge) (12.4%)

Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, enjera & porridge) (12.6%)

Sorghum (60%) + tef (40%) enjera (17.5%)

Sorghum (60%) + tef (40%): (enjera) (12%)

Sorghum (60%) + tef (40%) (22.8%)

Sorghum (60%) + tef (40%): (enjera) (10%)

Legumes & nuts

Sesame and Linseed: (roasted & dried) (10.2%)

Sesame and Linseed: (roasted & dried) (14.5%)

Eggs

Egg (Boiled & fried) (18%)

Egg (Boiled & fried) (18.8%)

Egg (Boiled & fried) (19.2%)

Dairy products

Milk (boiled)

(27.4%)

Milk (boiled & Whey) (16%)

Milk (boiled & Whey) (10.6%)

Milk (boiled) (26.1%)

Milk (boiled & Whey) (14.9%)

Milk (boiled & Whey) (11%)

Iron, mg

Cereals

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge &

injera) (10%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (16.5%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (19.5%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (18.9%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (21.2%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (22.5%)

Tef: mixed, white, red, (gruel & porridge) (74.5%)

Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (43.7%)

Tef: mixed, white & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (28.6%)

Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, enjera & porridge) (29.3%)

Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (24.6%)

Tef: mixed, white & red, (gruel, enjera & porridge) (15.4%)

Sorghum (75%) + maize (25%): (enjera) (12.9%)

Sorghum (50%) + maize (50%) (enjera & bread) (15.2%)

Sorghum (75%) + maize (25%): (enjera & unleavened bread) (23.8%)

Sorghum (50%) + maize (50%) (enjera & bread) (18.4%)

Eggs

Egg (Boiled & fried) (10.6%)

Zinc, mg

Cereals

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (18.1%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (21.4%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (19.7%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (25.1%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (26.1%)

Tef: mixed, white, red, (gruel & porridge) (63.1%)

Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (30.9%)

Tef: mixed, white & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (19.1%)

Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, enjera & porridge) (20.8%)

Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (19.3%)

Com (maize): white & yellow (porridge, bread, gruel & enjera) (12.2%)

Com (maize): white & yellow (porridge, bread, gruel & enjera) (12.8%)

Com (maize): yellow & white (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (11.4%)

Eggs

Egg (Boiled & fried) (19.4%)

Egg (Boiled & fried) (17.1%)

Egg (Boiled & fried) (16.1%)

Vitamin A, μg

Eggs

Egg (Boiled & fried) (26.7%)

Egg (Boiled & fried) (65.57%)

Egg (Boiled & fried) (80.5%)

Egg (Boiled & fried) (64.9%)

Egg (Boiled & fried) (96%)

Egg (Boiled & fried) (92.1%)

Fruits

Mango: fresh (31.9%)

Mango: fresh (10.5%)

Thiamin, mg

Cereals

Sorghum: mixed, red & White

(porridge, injera & bread) (41.7%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (32.3%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (37.8%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (44.2)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (46.2%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (38.8%)

Tef: white & mixed (porridge) (25%)

Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (17.7%)

Wheat (50%) + maize (50%): (thick enjera, unleavened bread) (10.3%)

Wheat: mixed & white (bread & (porridge) (16.7%)

Wheat: mixed (Bread, enjera & Porridge) (14.5%)

Wheat: mixed (Bread, enjera & Porridge) (16.4%)

Wheat: mixed (Bread, enjera & Porridge) 23.3%)

Wheat: mixed (Bread & Porridge) (9.9%)

Wheat: mixed (Bread, enjera & Porridge) (10.3%)

Com (maize): white & yellow (porridge, bread, gruel & enjera) (16.1%)

Com (maize): white & yellow (porridge, bread & enjera) (11.6%)

Eggs

Egg (Boiled & fried) (16.3%)

Egg (Boiled & fried) (25.3%)

Egg (Boiled & fried) (21.1%)

Riboflavin, mg

Cereals

Sorghum: mixed. (porridge & injera) (25%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (31.6%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (31.7%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (41.7%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (51.1%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (36.7%)

Tef: mixed, white & red, (bread, enjera & porridge) (29%)

Tef: mixed, white & red, (bread, enjera & porridge) (20%)

Tef: mixed, white & red, (bread, enjera & porridge) (10.9%)

Wheat: mixed (Bread, enjera & Porridge) (15.8%)

Wheat: mixed (Bread, enjera & Porridge) (16.9%)

Wheat: mixed (Bread, enjera & Porridge) (15%)

Eggs

Egg (fried) (12.5%)

Egg (Boiled & fried) (16.7%)

Egg (Boiled & fried) (10.5%)

Egg (Boiled & fried) (22.2%)

Egg (Boiled & fried) (15.7%)

Dairy products

Milk (boiled) (50%)

Milk (boiled) (33.3%)

Niacin, mg

Cereals

Sorghum: mixed, red & White (porridge, injera & bread) (28.6%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (52.5%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (48.5%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (43.4)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (58.6%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (58.4%)

Tef: mixed, white & red (gruel & porridge) (47.2%)

Tef: mixed, white & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (19.8%)

Tef: mixed, white & red, (gruel, bread, enjera & porridge) (12.6%)

Tef: mixed & red, (gruel, enjera & porridge) (15%)

Tef: mixed, white& red, (gruel, enjera & porridge) (12.5%)

Wheat: mixed (Bread, enjera & Porridge) (11.2%)

Wheat: (mixed & red) (Bread, enjera & Porridge) (12.6%)

Vitamin C, mg

Cereals

Sorghum: mixed, red & White (porridge, injera & bread) (52%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (64.6%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (65.4%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (53.1%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (74.5%)

Sorghum: mixed, red and white, (porridge, bread & enjera) (73.3%)

Tef: mixed, white & red (gruel) (11.3%)

Fruits

Mango fresh (30.7%)

Mango fresh (22.3%)