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Table 2 Prospective association between vitamin K status and echocardiographic measurements in 405 participants

From: High vitamin K status is prospectively associated with decreased left ventricular mass in women: the Hoorn Study

  Quartiles of dp-ucMGP (pmol/L)
  Quartile 1 Quartile 2 Quartile 3 Quartile 4a P-trend
LVMI (g/m2.7)b
Men n=206 40.9±9.2 40.7±10.4 43.6±13.3 45.2±11.7  
 Model 1 -1.8 (-6.6; 3.0) -0.7 (-5.4; 4.0) 2.1 (-2.9; 7.1) Ref 0.353
 Model 2 -1.3 (-6.4; 3.7) -0.5 (-5.2; -4.1) 1.8 (-3.1; 6.8) Ref 0.611
Women n=199 35.6±9.3 38.9±7.7 45.1±12.5 46.7±15.6  
 Model 1 -6.5 (-11.2;-1.8) -7.2 (-11.9; -2.6) -0.3 (-4.8; 4.2) Ref <0.001
 Model 2 -5.0 (-10.5; 0.4) -6.8 (-11.8; -1.8) 0.4 (-2.9; 3.7) Ref <0.001
LVEF (%)b 53.4±9.2 53.3±9.8 52.0±11.2 52.3±10.2  
 Model 1 1.3 (-1.9; 4.5) 1.0 (-2.1; 4.1) 1.3 (-1.9; 4.4) Ref 0.48
 Model 2 1.1 (-2.4; 4.5) 0.8 (-2.4; 3.9) 1.1 (-2.1; 4.3) Ref 0.61
LAVI (mL/m2)b 24.0±9.4 25.2±10.1 26.0±10.6 28.0 ±18.0  
 Model 1 -1.8 (-5.1; 1.4) 0.50 (-2.6; 3.6) -0.8 (-4.0; 2.3) Ref 0.43
 Model 2 -0.1 (-3.3; 3.3) 0.9 (-2.2; 3.9) -0.4 (-3.5; 2.6) Ref 0.79
  1. Model 1: Adjusted for baseline echo value (i.e. LVMI at follow-up adjusted for baseline LVMI), follow-up duration, age, sex and glycemic status
  2. Model 2: Adjusted for model 1 and physical activity, smoking, BMI, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HbA1c, education, prior CVD, BNP and eGFR
  3. Abbreviations: LVMI left ventricle mass index, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LAVI left atrium volume index
  4. aQuartile 4 indicates the highest dp-ucMGP concentration and therefore reflects the lowest vitamin K status
  5. bMean echocardiographic measures at follow-up
  6. P-for interaction vitamin K status and LVMI by sex=0.07