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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of 405 participants stratified by quartiles of vitamin K status

From: High vitamin K status is prospectively associated with decreased left ventricular mass in women: the Hoorn Study

  Quartiles of dp-ucMGP (pmol/L)
  Total population Quartile 1 Quartile 2 Quartile 3 Quartile 4a
Dp-ucMGP (pmol/ xl)
(min-max)
578±410
97-4608
258±70
97-366
432±41
366-507
597±56
508-697
1047±581
680-4608
n 405 102 103 102 98
Age (years)d 66.8±6.1 64.5±6.7 66.2±6.1 69.0±5.7 67.7±4.9
Male sex (%)d 50.9 56.9 59.2 47.1 39.8
Highb education (%) 22.0 22.5 27.2 19.2 19.8
Current smoking (%) 12.3 17.6 13.6 9.9 8.2
Physical activity (h/week) 22.5±17.0 22.2±15.7 24.0±19.8 21.5±17.3 22.1±14.8
Type 2 diabetes (%) 30.1 34.3 27.5 27.7 32.0
Previous CVD (%) 42.5 42.9 35.3 53.1 44.2
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)d 139±394 134±20 139±17 142±19 143±20
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.7±1.0 5.6±1.1 5.7±1.0 5.8±0.9 5.8±1.1
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.4±0.4 1.4±0.4 1.4±0.4 1.4±0.4 1.4±0.4
HbA1c (%) 6.0 ±0.8 5.9 ±0.7 6.0 ±0.8 6.0 ±0.7 6.1 ±0.8
BMI (kg/m2)d 27.3±3.5 26.3±3.2 27.4±3.9 27.4±3.2 28.3±3.3
eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2)d 63.7±10.2 68.1±10.3 64.1±9.5 61.8±10.5 60.6±8.7
Echocardiographic measures
 LVMI (g/m2.7)d 40.3±11.3 38.5±11.4 39.2±9.1 41.0±11.4 42.9±12.7
 Ejection fraction (%) 62.0±8.0 61.4±7.3 62.6±7.6 60.8±8.8 63.3±8.0
 LAVI (mL/m2)d 24.7±7.9 24.5±6.3 22.9±5.7 25.0±7.2 26.4±11.1
 BNP (pg/mL)d 0.5 [0.2, 0.9] 0.4 [0.2, 0.7] 0.3 [0.2, 0.7] 0.7 [0.4, 1.1] 0.6 [0.3, 0.9]
Dietary intake
 Energy (kcal/day) 1980±508 1970±528 2056±512 2016±490 1875±489
 Saturated fat (g/day)c 31.0±6.4 30.4±5.0 32.3±7.0 30.4±7.2 31.2±6.0
 Protein (g/day)c,d 73.3±11.1 74.8±12.6 75.0±10.0 72.2±10.8 71.3±10.4
 Fiber (g/day)c,d 24.3±4.7 25.3±4.7 24.0±4.5 24.6±4.4 23.2±4.9
 Vitamin C (mg/day)c 107±42.1 109±43.8 105±36.4 109±41.4 107±46.9
 Calcium (mg/day)c 1058±297 1065±333 1065±293 1073±281 1028±281
 Alcohol (g/day) 7.2 [1.1-18.0] 6.9 [1.0-12.1] 8.2 [1.7-18.1] 7.5 [1.1-18.2] 5.9 [0.7-22.7]
 Vitamin K1 (mg/day)c 185±75.8 189±76.9 192±69.8 184±83.1 172±72.2
 Vitamin K2 (mg/day)c 35.4±13.6 37.7±16.4 35.6 ±12.2 33.2±13.1 35.0±12.1
 Total vitamin K (mg/day)c 220±77.9 227±79.7 227±71.2 218±85.0 207±74.3
 Short-chain vit K2 (mg/day)c 22.6±7.5 23.0±8.4 23.9±7.1 21.1±7.6 22.6±6.8
 Long-chain vit K2 (mg/day)c 12.2±10.5 14.1±13.3 11.2 ±9.6 11.6 ±8.7 11.8±9.5
  1. Values represent mean values and standard deviation, percentages or median (interquartile range)
  2. aQuartile 4 indicates the highest dp-ucMGP concentration and therefore reflects the lowest vitamin K status
  3. bHigh education indicates tertiary education
  4. cEnergy-adjusted intakes
  5. dp<0.05 between quartiles of vitamin K status