Skip to main content

Table 1 Study characteristics

From: Effect of probiotic fermented dairy products on incidence of respiratory tract infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

Study Year Country Population sex Follow-up (month) Intervention mean age (year ±sd) Placebo mean age (year) Intervention type Intervention (n) Placebo (n) Outcomes
Agustina [26] 2012 Indonesia Healthy children Both 6 60.3 ± 13.7 58.9 ±14.2 Milk with 5.108 CFU/day of Lactobacillus casei CRL431 120 126 Respiratory tract infections
Milk with 5.108 CFU/day of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM17938 124
Hojsak [32, 33] 2010 Croatia Healthy children Both 3 4.32±1.52 4.46±1.45 Fermented milk with Lactobacillus GG at a dose of109 CFU/ 100 ml of milk 139 142 Upper respiratory tract infections
Lower respiratory tract infections
Acute otitis media
Pharyngitis
Rhinitis
Pneumonia
Hatakka [31] 2001 Finland Healthy children Both 7 4.6 ±1.5 4.4 ±1.5 Milk with 5­10 x 10^5 CFU/ml of strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG 282 289 Acute otitis media
Sinusitis
Acute bronchitis
Pneumonia
Hojsak [32, 33] 2010 Croatia hospitalized children Both NR 9.9±5.1 10.6± 5.0 Fermented milk with Lactobacillus GG at a dose of109 CFU/ 100 ml of milk 376 366 Respiratory tract infections
Guo [30] 2018 China Elderly patients with a single rib fracture Both 1 57.2 ± 9.7 55.4 ± 7.8 Milk containing at least 6 × 109 CFU Lactobacillus casei Shirota 102 102 Pneumonia
Guillemard [46] 2010 France Free-living elderly volunteers Both 3 76·0 ±5.92 76·0 ±5.18 Fermented dairy drink containing at least 1010 CFU/100 g of the probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 537 535 Upper respiratory tract infections
Lower respiratory tract infections
Guillemard [29] 2010 Germany Healthy Shift Workers Both 3 31.8 ±8.9 32.5 ±8.9 Fermented dairy drink containing at least 1010 CFU/100 g of the probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 500 500 Upper respiratory tract infections
Lower respiratory tract infections
Jespersen [34] 2015 Denmark Healthy adult volunteers Both 1.4 31.3 ± 10.57 31.6 ± 10.65 Milk drink containing 109 CFU of L. casei 431 553 551 Common cold
Influenza
Kumpu [36] 2012 Finland Healthy children Both 7 4.0 ±1.3 4.0 ±1.4 Milk with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ranged from 6.7 ×105 to 1.9× 106 CFU/ml 251 250 Respiratory tract infections
Corsello [27] 2017 Italy Healthy children Both 3 32.5 ± 9.7 33.7 ± 8.6 Milk Fermented containing 5.9 ×109 Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 73 73 Upper respiratory tract infections
Kinoshita [35] 2019 Japan Women healthcare workers Female 4 39.3 ±11.5 39.4 ±11.4 Yogurt drink fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 at a dose of 1.12× 109 CFU 479 482 Influenza
Makino [38] 2010 Japan Healthy elderly individuals Both 3 66.7 ± 6.25 39.4 ±11.4 yoghurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 and Streptococcus thermophilus OLS3059 at a dose of 2·0–3·5 × 108 and 6·3–8·8 × 108 CFU/g, respectively 44 43 Common cold
2 74.5 ± 2.75 39.4 ±11.4 yoghurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 and Streptococcus thermophilus OLS3059 at a dose of 2·0–3·5 × 108 and 6·3–8·8 × 108 CFU/g, respectively 30 30 Common cold
Prodeus [40] 2016 Russia Healthy children Both 3 4 ± 1 4 ± 1 Fermented milk product containing L casei CNCM I-1518 at a dose of 1010 CFU/100 g 300 299 Upper respiratory tract infections
Lower respiratory tract infections
Rhinopharyngitis
Pu [41] 2017 China Healthy elderly Both 3 57.39±8.47 59.54±8.08 Yogurt supplemented with a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus paracasei N1115 at a dose of 3.6×107 CFU/mL 115 118 Upper respiratory tract infections
Mai [37] 2020 Vietnam Healthy children Both 3 4.3±0.83 4.5±0.71 Fermented milk containing 108 CFU/mL of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota 510 493 Respiratory tract infections
Meng [39] 2016 USA Healthy adults Both 1 28.0 ± 1.2 4.5±0.71 Fermented yogurt with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 at a dose of 10 ± 0.5 CFUs/day 26 26 cold/flu infection
Merenstein [14] 2010 USA Healthy children Both 3 4.86 ±1.12 4.94 ±1.13 Fermented probiotic dairy drink containing the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. Paracasei at a dose of 1 ×108 CFU/g 314 324 Upper respiratory tract infections
Lower respiratory tract infections
Sazawal [43] 2010 India Healthy children Both 12 1.85 ± 0.53 1.90 ± 0.56 Milk fortified with 2.4 g/day of prebiotic oligosaccharide and 1.9 ×107 CFU /day of probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 312 312 Pneumonia
Lower respiratory tract infections
Rongrungruang [42] 2015 Thailand Adult hospitalized patients in medical wards Both 3 73.09±13.16 68.95±18.45 Fermented dairy product containing 8x109 CFU Lactobacillus casei (Shirota strain) 75 75 Pneumonia
Shida [44] 2017 Japan Healthy middle‑aged office workers Male 3 40.6 ±5.3 40.5 ±5.9 Fermented milk with Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota at a dose of 1.0 × 1011 CFU 49 47 Upper respiratory tract infections
Common cold
Influenza
Fujita [28] 2013 Japan Elderly persons Both 5 83.2 ± 9.1 83.5 ± 8.9 Fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota at a dose of 4 × 1010 CFU 76 78 Upper respiratory tract infections
Puyenbroeck [45] 2012 Belgium Elderly persons Both 5.8 83.95 ± 9.24 84.17 ± 11.5 Fermented milk that contained 6.5 × 109 live Lactobacillus casei Shirota 375 362 Respiratory tract infections
  1. CFU Colony forming unit, sd standard deviation