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Table 2 Logistic regression analysis for the relationship between diet quality indices and the risk of hypertension in the whole population (N = 10,112), males (N = 4565), and females (N = 5547)

From: Diet quality in relation to the risk of hypertension among Iranian adults: cross-sectional analysis of Fasa PERSIAN cohort study

whole population   Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value
  MDS Quartile 1 1   1   1  
Quartile 2 0.94 (0.83–1.06) 0.35 0.97 (0.85–1.11) 0.73 1.03 (0.90–1.18) 0.63
Quartile 3 0.80 (0.71–0.91) 0.001 0.81 (0.71–0.93) 0.003 0.88 (0.77–1.01) 0.08
Quartile 4 0.79 (0.70–0.89) ≤0.001 0.76 (0.67–0.87) ≤0.001 0.86 (0.75–0.99) 0.03
P -trend   ≤0.001   ≤0.001   0.03
HEI-2015 Quartile 1 1   1   1  
Quartile 2 0.53 (0.47–0.60) ≤0.001 0.83 (0.73–0.95) 0.007 0.91 (0.79–1.04) 0.17
Quartile 3 0.62 (0.55–0.69) ≤0.001 0.72 (0.63–0.81) ≤0.001 0.80 (0.70–0.91) 0.001
Quartile 4 0.75 (0.66–0.85) ≤0.001 0.66 (0.58–0.75) ≤0.001 0.79 (0.68–0.90) 0.001
P -trend   ≤0.001   ≤0.001   ≤0.001
DDS Quartile 1 1   1   1  
Quartile 2 0.91 (0.81–1.03) 0.15 1.01 (0.89–1.15) 0.78 0.97 (0.84–1.11) 0.65
Quartile 3 0.95 (0.84–1.08) 0.49 1.08 (0.94–1.23) 0.25 0.95 (0.82–1.09) 0.48
Quartile 4 0.86 (0.75–0.99) 0.04 1.07 (0.92–1.24) 0.37 0.93 (0.79–1.09) 0.39
P -trend   0.19   0.65   0.84
DQI-I Quartile 1 1   1   1  
Quartile 2 0.83 (0.62–1.13) 0.25 0.87 (0.64–1.18) 0.39 0.86 (0.63–1.18) 0.37
Quartile 3 0.80 (0.57–1.11) 0.19 0.83 (0.60–1.17) 0.29 0.87 (0.62–1.24) 0.46
Quartile 4 0.76 (0.53–1.09) 0.14 0.83 (0.57–1.19) 0.31 0.90 (0.61–1.31) 0.58
P -trend   0.41   0.67   0.81
Males MDS Quartile 1 1   1   1  
  Quartile 2 0.92 (0.75–1.13) 0.47 0.94 (0.76–1.17) 0.61 0.99 (0.79–1.24) 0.97
  Quartile 3 0.82 (0.67–1.01) 0.06 0.80 (0.64–0.99) 0.04 0.88 (0.71–1.11) 0.30
  Quartile 4 0.77 (0.63–0.93) 0.01 0.72 (0.58–0.89) 0.002 0.88 (0.70–1.09) 0.25
  P -trend   0.04   0.008   0.50
HEI-2015 Quartile 1 1   1   1  
  Quartile 2 0.71 (0.58–0.87) 0.001 0.78 (0.63–0.96) 0.01 0.89 (0.72–1.11) 0.33
  Quartile 3 0.52 (0.42–0.63) ≤0.001 0.60 (0.49–0.74) 0.001 0.75 (0.60–0.93) 0.009
  Quartile 4 0.48 (0.39–0.59) ≤0.001 0.59 (0.48–0.73) 0.001 0.80 (0.64–0.99) 0.05
  P -trend   ≤0.001   ≤0.001   0.05
DDS Quartile 1 1   1   1  
  Quartile 2 1.02 (0.82–1.28) 0.82 1.07 (0.87–1.39) 0.39 0.99 (0.77–1.27) 0.96
  Quartile 3 1.19 (0.95–1.49) 0.11 1.26 (0.99–1.60) 0.06 1.05 (0.82–1.34) 0.69
  Quartile 4 1.08 (0.86–1.37) 0.47 1.25 (0.98–1.59) 0.06 1.00 (0.77–1.30) 0.97
  P -trend   0.35   0.16   0.95
DQI-I Quartile 1 1   1   1  
  Quartile 2 0.72 (0.42–1.21) 0.22 0.81 (0.47–1.40) 0.46 0.81 (0.45–1.46) 0.49
  Quartile 3 0.50 (0.27–0.92) 0.02 0.54 (0.29–1.01) 0.06 0.68 (0.34–1.35) 0.27
  Quartile 4 0.69 (0.34–1.39) 0.30 0.81 (0.39–1.68) 0.58 0.96 (0.42–2.20) 0.94
  P -trend   0.16   0.30   0.70
Females MDS Quartile 1 1   1   1  
  Quartile 2 0.98 (0.84–1.14) 0.81 0.99 (0.84–1.17) 0.98 1.05 (0.89–1.25) 0.51
  Quartile 3 0.82 (0.70–0.96) 0.01 0.83 (0.70–0.98) 0.03 0.89 (0.75–1.07) 0.22
  Quartile 4 0.86 (0.73–1.01) 0.06 0.80 (0.68–0.95) 0.01 0.87 (0.73–1.04) 0.14
  P -trend   0.04   0.01   0.13
HEI-2015 Quartile 1 1   1   1  
  Quartile 2 0.79 (0.68–0.92) ≤0.001 0.87 (0.74–1.03) 0.11 0.92 (0.75–1.09) 0.35
  Quartile 3 0.72 (0.62–0.84) ≤0.001 0.80 (0.67–0.94) 0.008 0.84 (0.71–1.008) 0.06
  Quartile 4 0.60 (0.51–0.70) ≤0.001 0.71 (0.60–0.83) 0.001 0.78 (0.66–0.94) 0.008
  P -trend   0.004   0.001   0.04
DDS Quartile 1 1   1   1  
  Quartile 2 0.91 (0.79–1.06) 0.24 1.04 (0.89–1.22) 0.58 0.99 (0.84–1.18) 0.99
  Quartile 3 0.88 (0.75–1.03) 0.13 1.05 (0.88–1.24) 0.56 0.93 (0.78–1.12) 0.47
  Quartile 4 0.79 (0.66–0.96) 0.01 1.08 (0.88–1.32) 0.45 0.92 (0.74–1.14) 0.45
  P -trend   0.11   0.88   0.80
DQI-I Quartile 1 1   1   1  
  Quartile 2 0.89 (0.61–1.28) 0.54 0.91 (0.62–1.31) 0.61 0.89 (0.60–1.30) 0.56
  Quartile 3 0.94 (0.63–1.40) 0.78 0.97 (0.64–1.45) 0.88 1.00 (0.66–1.52) 0.97
  Quartile 4 0.77 (0.50–1.18) 0.24 0.82 (0.53–1.26) 0.37 0.86 (0.55–1.33) 0.50
  P -trend   0.69   0.81   0.84
  1. MDS Mediterranean diet score, HEI-2015 healthy eating index-2015, DDS diet diversity score, DQI-I diet quality index international
  2. Model 1: Adjusted for daily energy intake
  3. Model 2: Adjusted for daily energy intake, age, and gender
  4. Model 3: Adjusted for daily energy intake, age, gender, physical activity, smoking, family history of hypertension, body mass index, and level of education