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Table 1 Distribution of baseline variables and mean score of dietary indices in men and women with and without hypertension

From: Diet quality in relation to the risk of hypertension among Iranian adults: cross-sectional analysis of Fasa PERSIAN cohort study

   Men (n = 4565)   Women (n = 5547)  
  total With hypertension (n = 986) Without hypertension (n = 3579) P-value With hypertension (n = 1872) Without hypertension (n = 3675) P-value
Age (year)a 48.63 ± 9.57 53.81 ± 9.97 47.19 ± 9.00 ≤0.001 53.62 ± 9.16 46.11 ± 8.64 ≤0.001
Education (year)a 4.66 ± 3.88 4.99 ± 4.23 6.05 ± 4.09 ≤0.001 2.51 ± 2.90 4.32 ± 3.42 ≤0.001
Height (cm)a 161.67 ± 9.65 168.16 ± 6.44 169.19 ± 7.09 ≤0.001 155.17 ± 6.60 155.92 ± 7.29 ≤0.001
Wight (kg)a 67.02 ± 13.32 74.68 ± 13.64 67.72 ± 13.37 ≤0.001 67.44 ± 12.86 64.04 ± 12.45 ≤0.001
WHRa 0.93. ±0.06 0.94 ± 0.06 0.9 ± 0.06 ≤0.001 0.96 ± 0.06 0.93 ± 0.06 ≤0.001
BMI(kg/m2)a 25.64 ± 4.85 26.36 ± 4.34 23.59 ± 4.26 ≤0.001 27.94 ± 4.94 26.28 ± 4.73 ≤0.001
Physical activity(MET)a 41.47 ± 11.34 42.81 ± 13.67 45.84 ± 14.42 ≤0.001 37.72 ± 6.49 38.77 ± 6.81 ≤0.001
DBP (mmHg)a 74.65 ± 11.99 87.66 ± 11.81 70.69 ± 8.85 ≤0.001 83.93 ± 12.37 70.28 ± 8.98 ≤0.001
SBP (mmHg)a 111.36 ± 18.50 131.16 ± 18.29 104.83 ± 12.30 ≤0.001 127.98 ± 20.12 103.94 ± 12.50 ≤0.001
Marital statusb     0.06    0.001
Non-married 1118 96 (2.7) 16 (1.6)   620 (16.9) 386 (20.6)  
Married 8994 3483 (97.3) 970 (98.4)   3055 (83.1) 1486 (79.4)  
History of diabetesb 1244 185 (5.2) 169 (17.1) ≤0.001 400 (10.9) 490 (26.2) ≤0.001
History of ischemic heart disease b 1098 202 (5.6) 200 (20.3) ≤0.001 247 (6.7) 449 (24.0) ≤0.001
Alcohol drinkerb 210 179 (5.0) 31 (3.1) 0.01 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Active smokingb 2735 2025 (56.6) 432 (43.8) ≤0.001 133 (3.6) 145 (7.7) ≤0.001
Supplement useb 1647 382 (10.7) 74 (7.5) 0.003 871 (23.7) 320 (17.1) ≤0.001
Obesity status b     ≤0.001    ≤0.001
Underweight BMI<18.4) 576 396 (11.1) 28 (2.9)   128 (3.5) 24 (1.3)  
Normal weight
(BMI = 18.5–24.9)
4119 1890 (53.0) 355 (36.2)   1371 (37.4) 503 (27.0)  
overweight (BMI = 25–29.9) 3613 1033 (29.0) 417 (42.5)   1413 (38.5) 750 (40.2)  
obese (BMI ≥ 30) 5474 247 (6.9) 181 (18.5)   757 (20.6) 589 (31.6)  
Family history of diabetesb 4498 1397 (39.0) 430 (43.6) 0.009 1754 (47.7) 917 (49.0) 0.37
Family history of hypertensionb 6394 2008 (56.1) 651 (66.0) ≤0.001 2351 (64.0) 1384 (73.9) ≤0.001
Family history of ischemic heart diseaseb 5369 1699 (47.5) 456 (46.2) 0.49 2127 (57.9) 1087 (58.1) 0.89
DQI-I scorea 54.77 ± 11.66 54.62 ± 11.40 58.33 ± 11.75 ≤0.001 53.95 ± 11.67 54.79 ± 11.76 0.01
HEI-2015 scorea 50.00 ± 11.41 48.77 ± 10.85 51.99 ± 11.54 ≤0.001 49.72 ± 11.57 51.83 ± 11.72 ≤0.001
DDS scorea 4.79 ± 1.96 5.20 ± 1.90 5.26 ± 1.95 0.40 4.23 ± 1.91 4.51 ± 1.88 ≤0.001
MDSa 4.50 ± 1.52 4.29 ± 1.50 4.44 ± 1.50 0.008 4.58 ± 1.50 4.74 ± 1.56 ≤0.001
  1. Quantitative variables are reported as mean ± standard deviation and for qualitative as frequency (percentage)
  2. aIndependent samples t test, b χ2 test
  3. DDS dietary diversity score, MDS Mediterranean dietary score, DQI-I diet quality index-international, HEI-2015 healthy eating index-2015, BMI Body mass index, SBP Systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, WHR waist to hip ratio