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Table 1 Characteristics of participants with or without carotid artery plaque

From: The association of carotid artery atherosclerosis with the estimated excretion levels of urinary sodium and potassium and their ratio in Chinese adults

Characteristics (mean ± SD) Total (N = 13,523) Without plaque (N = 9444) With plaque (N = 4079) P1
Age (years) 48.66 ± 10.46 45.79 ± 9.71 55.31 ± 9.00 < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 24.62 ± 3.19 24.56 ± 3.25 24.75 ± 3.04 0.002
SBP (mmHg) 125.32 ± 16.32 123.04 ± 15.23 130.60 ± 17.49 < 0.001
DBP (mmHg) 77.04 ± 11.54 76.01 ± 11.31 79.41 ± 11.72 < 0.001
FSG (mmol/L) 5.69 ± 1.46 5.56 ± 1.21 6.01 ± 1.89 < 0.001
TC (mmol/L) 5.11 ± 0.98 5.05 ± 0.97 5.27 ± 1.00 < 0.001
TG (mmol/L) 1.92 ± 1.79 1.90 ± 1.85 1.98 ± 1.64 0.013
LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.91 ± 0.85 2.85 ± 0.83 3.04 ± 0.88 < 0.001
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.34 ± 0.31 1.35 ± 0.31 1.33 ± 0.30 0.001
Estimated UNa (g/day) 2 4.32 ± 1.15 4.32 ± 1.15 4.32 ± 1.14 0.56
Estimated UK (g/day) 2 2.11 ± 0.45 2.13 ± 0.46 2.08 ± 0.45 < 0.001
Na/K ratio 2.10 ± 0.65 2.09 ± 0.61 2.14 ± 0.73 < 0.001
Male sex (%) 37.4 40.1 31.2 < 0.001
Current alcohol users (%) 33.1 32.4 34.6 0.006
Current smokers (%) 27.6 25.7 31.9 < 0.001
Hypertension3 32.6 26.1 47.7 < 0.001
Dyslipidemia4 37.5 34.9 43.3 < 0.001
Diabetes mellitus5 (%) 8.3 6.0 13.4 < 0.001
CVD (%) 1.6 1.0 3.1 < 0.001
  1. Note: SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, FSG fasting serum glucose, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, UNa urinary sodium excretion, UK urinary potassium excretion;
  2. 1 P were obtained between those with or without plaque using the two-sample nonparametric Wilcoxon test and the chi-square test for categorical variables
  3. 2 24-h urinary sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels were estimated using the Kawasaki formula
  4. 3 Hypertension was defined as self-reported hypertension diagnosed by a physician, self-reported regular use of antihypertensive medications, or systolic/diastolic blood pressure at recruitment ≥140/90 mmHg
  5. 4 Dyslipidemia was defined as meeting any of the following criteria: 1) TC ≥ 6.22 mmol/L; 2) LDL-C ≥ 4.14 mmol/L; 3) HDL-C < 1.04 mmol/L; 4) TG ≥2.26 mmol/L; 5) self-reported dyslipidemia or use of lipid-lowering medications;
  6. 5 Diabetes mellitus was defined as self-reported diabetes diagnosed by a physician, self-reported regular use of antidiabetic medications, or fasting glucose at recruitment ≥7.0 mmol/L.