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Table 4 Univariable Analysis of Vitamin Deficiencies and Disorders among United States Military Personnel by Demographic Characteristics (1997–2015)

From: Clinically-diagnosed vitamin deficiencies and disorders in the entire United States military population, 1997–2015

Deficiency/Disorder Variable Strata N Incidence Rate (cases/100,000 person-yr) Incidence Rate Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) Deficiency/Disorder Variable Strata N Incidence Rate (cases/ 100,000 person-yr) Incidence Rate Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
Thiamine (B1) Deficiency Sex Male 161 0.27 1.00 Riboflavin (B2) Deficiency Sex Male 19 0.08 1.00
Female 60 1.57 2.19 (1.63–2.94) Female 13 0.34 4.05 (1.98–8.13)
Age < 20 6 0.31 1.00 Age < 20 3 0.15 1.00
20–24 43 0.51 1.63 (0.70–3.84) 20–24 6 0.07 0.46 (0.11–1.82)
25–29 34 0.58 1.88 (0.79–4.50) 25–29 2 0.03 0.22 (0.04–1.33)
30–34 48 1.20 3.88 (1.66–9.07) 30–34 6 0.15 0.97 (0.24–3.88)
35–39 36 1.08 3.50 (1.48–8.31) 35–39 5 0.15 0.97 (0.23–4.07)
≥40 54 2.00 6.46 (2.78–15.01) ≥40 10 0.37 2.39 (0.66–8.69)
Race White 124 0.69 1.00 Race White 16 0.09 1.00
Black 75 1.58 2.28 (1.71–3.04) Black 11 0.23 2.60 (1.20–5.59)
Other 22 0.62 0.90 (0.57–1.42) Other 5 0.14 1.59 (0.58–4.34)
Service Army 102 1.06 1.00 Service Army 20 0.21 1.00
Navy 42 0.64 0.60 (0.42–0.86) Navy 2 0.03 0.14 (0.03–0.62)
Air Force 62 0.95 0.89 (0.65–1.23)
Air Force 7 0.11 0.51 (0.22–1.22)
Marines 3 0.09 0.41 (0.13–1.39)
Marines 15 0.43 0.40 (0.24–0.70)
Niacin (B3) Deficiency Sex Male 46 0.21 1.00 Pyridoxine (B6) Deficiency Sex Male 40 0.18 1.00
Female 5 0.13 0.64 (0.25–1.61) Female 21 0.55 3.08 (1.82–5.22)
Age < 20 1 0.05 1.00 Age < 20 0 0.00
20–24 8 0.09 1.83 (0.23–14.59) 20–24 12 0.14 1.00
25–29 11 0.19 3.67 (0.47–28.41) 25–29 8 0.14 0.97 (0.40–2.38)
30–34 9 0.23 4.37 (0.55–34.48) 30–34 9 0.23 1.60 (0.67–3.79)
35–39 8 0.24 4.67 (0.58–37.31) 35–39 13 0.39 2.77 (1.27–6.07)
≥40 14 0.52 10.05 (1.32–76.38) ≥40 19 0.70 4.98 (2.42–10.26)
Race White 36 0.20 1.00 Race White 33 0.18 1.00
Black 9 0.19 0.94 (0.45–1.96) Black 21 0.44 2.40 (1.39–4.15)
Other 6 0.17 0.85 (0.36–2.01) Other 7 0.20 1.08 (0.48–2.44)
Service Army 14 0.15 1.00 Service Army 31 0.32 1.00
Navy 10 0.15 1.03 (0.46–2.34) Navy 8 0.12 0.38 (0.17–0.82)
Air Force 22 0.34 2.31 (1.18–4.52) Air Force 16 0.24 0.76 (0.42–1.39)
Marines 5 0.14 0.98 (0.35–2.73) Marines 6 0.17 0.53 (0.22–1.28)
Folate (B9) Deficiency Anemia Sex Male 80 0.36 1.00 Vitamin B12 Anemia Sex Male 1147 5.11 1.00
Female 99 2.59 7.26 (5.41–9.75) Female 853 22.31 4.36 (3.99–4.77)
Age < 20 20 1.03 1.00 Age < 20 59 3.04 1.00
20–24 46 0.54 0.52 (0.31–0.89) 20–24 275 3.24 1.06 (0.80–1.41)
25–29 28 0.48 0.47 (0.26–0.83) 25–29 276 4.75 1.56 (1.18–2.07)
30–34 18 0.45 0.43 (0.23–0.83) 30–34 297 7.44 2.44 (1.85–3.23)
35–39 29 0.87 0.85 (0.48–1.50) 35–39 420 12.64 4.15 (3.16–5.45)
≥40 38 1.41 1.36 (0.79–2.34) ≥40 673 24.92 8.19 (6.27–10.68)
Race White 92 0.51 1.00 Race White 1144 6.37 1.00
Black 647 13.59 2.14 (1.94–2.35)
Black 74 1.55 3.04 (2.24–4.12) Other 209 5.91 0.93 (0.80–1.08)
Other 13 0.37 0.72 (0.40–1.28)
Service Army 81 0.84 1.00 Service Army 820 8.53 1.00
Navy 42 0.64 0.75 (0.52–1.10) Navy 424 6.41 0.75 (0.67–0.85)
Air Force 634 9.70 1.14 (1.03–1.26)
Air Force 43 0.66 0.78 (0.54–1.13) Marines 122 3.49 0.41 (0.34–0.50)
Marines 13 0.37 0.44 (0.25–0.79)
Folate & Vitamin B12 Anemia Sex Male 43 0.19 1.00 Other B-Complex Deficiency Sex Male 3062 13.65 1.00
Female 19 0.50 2.59 (1.51–4.45) Female 2254 58.95 4.32 (4.09–4.56)
Age < 20 5 0.26 1.00 Age < 20 87 4.49 1.00
20–24 9 0.11 0.41 (0.14–1.23) 20–24 678 7.98 1.78 (1.42–2.22)
25–29 13 0.22 0.87 (0.31–2.43) 25–29 799 13.75 3.06 (2.45–3.82)
30–34 6 0.15 0.58 (0.18–1.91) 30–34 861 21.57 4.80 (3.85–5.99)
35–39 12 0.36 1.40 (0.49–3.97) 35–39 1096 33.00 7.35 (5.91–9.14)
≥40 17 0.63 2.44 (0.90–6.61) ≥40 1795 66.46 14.80 (11.94–18.36)
Race White 39 0.22 1.00 Race White 3371 18.76 1.00
Black 17 0.36 1.65 (0.93–2.91) Black 1348 28.32 1.51 (1.42–1.61)
Other 6 0.17 0.78 (0.33–1.85) Other 597 16.89 0.90 (0.83–0.98)
Service Army 22 0.23 1.00 Service Army 2364 24.58 1.00
Navy 14 0.21 0.92 (0.47–1.81) Navy 1023 15.47 0.63 (0.58–0.68)
Air Force 21 0.32 1.40 (0.77–2.55) Air Force 1642 25.12 1.02 (0.96–1.09)
Marines 5 0.14 0.63 (0.24–1.65) Marines 287 8.21 0.33 (0.30–0.38)
Vitamin A Deficiency Sex Male 4367 1.95 1.00 Vitamin C Deficiency Sex Male 41 0.18 1.00
Female 222 5.81 2.98 (2.53–3.50) Female 12 0.31 1.72 (0.90–3.27)
Age < 20 82 4.23 1.00 Age < 20 5 0.26 1.00
20–24 205 2.41 0.57 (0.44–0.74) 20–24 20 0.24 0.91 (0.34–2.43)
25–29 116 2.00 0.47 (0.36–0.63) 25–29 7 0.12 0.47 (0.15–1.47)
30–34 83 2.08 0.49 (0.36–0.67) 30–34 5 0.13 0.49 (0.14–1.68)
35–39 83 2.50 0.59 (0.44–0.80) 35–39 7 0.21 0.82 (0.26–2.57)
≥40 90 3.33 0.78 (0.58–1.06) ≥40 9 0.33 1.29 (0.43–3.85)
Race White 382 2.13 1.00 Race White 41 0.23 1.00
Black 176 3.70 1.74 (1.46–2.08) Black 9 0.19 0.83 (0.40–1.71)
Other 101 2.86 1.34 (1.08–1.67) Other 3 0.08 0.37 (0.12–1.20)
Service Army 211 2.19 1.00 Service Army 15 0.16 1.00
Navy 126 1.91 0.87 (0.70–1.08) Navy 19 0.29 1.84 (0.95–3.63)
Air Force 266 4.07 1.86 (1.55–2.22) Air Force 14 0.21 1.37 (0.66–2.84)
Marines 56 1.60 0.73 (0.54–0.98) Marines 5 0.14 1.29 (0.47–3.54)
Vitamin D Deficiency Sex Male 9039 40.28 1.00 Vitamin K Deficiency Sex Male 35 0.16 1.00
Female 5074 132.70 3.29 (3.18–3.41) Female 14 0.37 2.35 (1.26–4.36)
Age < 20 514 26.52 1.00 Age < 20 2 0.10 1.00
20–24 1957 23.03 0.87 (0.79–0.96) 20–24 16 0.19 1.83 (0.42–7.94)
25–29 9 0.15 1.50 (0.32–6.94)
25–29 2542 43.74 1.65 (1.50–1.81) 30–34 4 0.10 0.97 (0.18–5.30)
30–34 2380 59.61 2.25 (2.04–2.47) 35–39 6 0.18 1.75 (0.35–8.67)
35–39 2636 79.36 2.99 (2.72–3.29) ≥40 12 0.44 4.31 (0.96–19.23)
≥40 4084 151.22 5.70 (5.20–6.25)
Race White 7946 44.22 1.00 Race White 34 0.19 1.00
Black 10 0.21 1.11 (0.55–2.25)
Black 4099 86.11 1.95 (1.88–2.02) Other 5 0.14 0.75 (0.29–1.91)
Other 2068 58.50 1.32 (1.26–1.39)
Service Army 6566 68.27 1.00 Service Army 22 0.23 1.00
Navy 2968 44.87 0.66 (0.63–0.69) Navy 8 0.12 0.53 (0.24–1.19)
Air Force 3602 55.10 0.81 (0.77–0.84) Air Force 16 0.24 1.07 (0.56–2.04)
Marines 977 27.96 0.41 (0.38–0.44) Marines 3 0.09 0.38 (0.11–1.25)
Deficiencies of “Other Vitamins” Sex Male 951 4.24 1.00 Hyper-vitaminosis A Sex Male 46 0.21 1.00
Female 609 15.93 3.76 (3.39–4.16) Female 22 0.58 2.81 (1.69–4.66)
Age < 20 38 1.96 1.00 Age < 20 2 0.10 1.00
20–24 219 2.58 1.31 (0.93–1.86) 20–24 18 0.21 2.05 (0.48–8.85)
25–29 292 5.02 2.56 (1.83–3.59)
25–29 10 0.17 1.67 (0.37–7.61)
30–34 240 6.01 3.07 (2.18–4.32) 30–34 11 0.28 2.67 (0.59–12.04)
35–39 13 0.39 3.79 (0.86–16.8)
35–39 280 8.43 4.30 (3.06–6.03) ≥40 14 0.52 5.02 (1.14–22.10)
≥40 491 18.18 9.27 (6.67–12.90)
Race White 902 5.02 1.00 Race White 47 0.26 1.00
Black 465 9.77 1.95 (1.74–2.18) Black 15 0.32 1.21 (0.67–2.15)
Other 193 5.46 1.09 (0.93–1.27) Other 6 0.17 0.65 (0.28–1.52)
Service Army 762 7.92 1.00 Service Army 20 0.21 1.00
Navy 290 4.38 0.55 (0.48–0.63) Navy 22 0.33 1.60 (0.87–2.93)
Air Force 413 6.32 0.80 (0.71–0.90) Air Force 22 0.34 1.62 (0.88–2.97)
Marines 95 2.72 0.34 (0.28–0.42) Marines 4 0.11 0.55 (0.19–1.61)
Hyper-vitaminosis D Sex Male 19 0.08 1.00  
Female 14 0.37 4.32 (2.17–8.62)
Age < 20 1 0.05 1.00
20–24 5 0.06 1.14 (0.13–9.76)
25–29 7 0.12 2.33 (0.29–18.97)
30–34 8 0.20 3.88 (0.49–31.04)
35–39 5 0.15 2.92 (0.34–24.97)
≥40 7 0.26 5.02 (0.62–40.82)
Race White 24 0.13 1.00
Black 9 0.19 1.42 (0.66–3.05)
Other 0 0.00
Service Army 16 0.17 1.00
Navy 5 0.08 0.45 (0.17–1.24)
Air Force 11 0.17 1.01 (0.47–2.18)
Marines 1 0.03 0.17 (0.02–1.30)