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Table 6 Relative validity study: Median daily energy and nutrient intakes, correlation coefficients and agreement between FFQ and 3DR in 112 lactating mothers

From: Reproducibility and relative validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for the Chinese lactating mothers

Energy and nutrients Intake value
Median (P25, P75)
p- value c Correlation coefficient Agreement
Percentage classified in
FFQ a 3DR b r d r e-adj e r de-att f Same quartile Same or adjacent quartile Extreme quartile
Energy (kcal/day) 2017.7 (1712.9, 2222.4) 1992.4 (1636.3, 2232.8) 0.87 0.72**   0.77** 62.8 91.1 4.4
Protein (g/day) 85.7 (70.1, 101.6) 83.4 (71.9, 100.6) 0.72 0.67** 0.31** 0.71** 72.4 95.5 0
Fat (g/day) 86.1 (73.3, 94.8) 77.7 (62.5, 93.2) 0.028 0.51** 0.33** 0.57** 42.5 85.1 4.4
Total Fatty acid (g/d) 66.3 (40.7, 80.3) 51.6 (33.9, 74.5) 0.02 0.48** 0.28** 0.54** 40.2 84.9 4.5
SFA (g/d) g 14.8 (8.8, 19.3) 9.5 (5.2, 18.3) 0.25 0.46** 0.28** 0.53** 37.5 80.4 4.5
MUFA (g/d) h 25.6 (15.3, 2.3) 17.6 (9.1, 29.5) 0.055 0.46** 0.28** 0.53** 40.2 82.1 5.4
PUFA (g/d) i 11.8 (7.6, 17.3) 7.6 (4.3, 11.9) 0.001 0.50** 0.24* 0.51** 36.5 81.2 5.4
n-3 PUFA (g/d) j 0.07 (0.04, 0.09) 0.05 (0.03, 0.10) 0.619 0.44** 0.27** 0.43** 36.6 79.4 4.5
n-6 PUFA (g/d) k 0.80 (0.59, 1.08) 0.71 (0.49, 1.42) 0.187 0.49** 0.28** 0.54** 29.5 83.8 3.6
Carbohydrate (g/d) 217.3 (175.7, 249.1) 222.6 (177.3, 272.0) 0.272 0.71** 0.45** 0.76** 50.4 90.2 2.7
Dietary fiber (g/d) 15.6 (11.8, 20.3) 12.7 (9.7, 16.2) 0.002 0.44** 0.34** 0.57** 38.9 78.7 8.0
Vitamin A (μgRAE/day) l 890.1 (636.1, 1151.6) 842.9 (569.11200.0) 0.90 0.26** 0.24** 0.32** 30.1 73.4 8.0
Thiamin (mg/day) 0.9 (0.8, 1.1) 0.9 (0.8, 1.2) 0.036 0.62** 0.39** 0.68** 54.0 81.4 1.8
Riboflavin (mg/day) 1.4 (1.2, 1.6) 1.3 (1.1, 1.7) 0.69 0.44** 0.30** 0.53** 41.6 80.5 7.1
Niacin (mg/day) 21.1 (16.4, 25.6) 20.1 (14.9, 25.8) 0.65 0.58** 0.41** 0.66** 44.2 84.9 3.5
Vitamin C (mg/day) 137.9 (105.5, 186.2) 109.3 (78.6, 151.3) < 0.01 0.23* 0.22* 0.28** 38.9 68.1 7.1
Vitamin E (mg/day) 36.5 (31.9, 41.4) 26.7 (23.4, 31.9) 0.005 0.43** 0.29* 0.37** 34.5 76.1 3.5
Calcium (mg/day) 667.4 (546.9, 824.1) 605.7 (432.8, 713.8) 0.013 0.31** 0.24* 0.41** 37.2 70.8 6.2
Phosphorus (mg/day) 1292.5 (1090.6, 1508.8) 1213.3 (1016.5, 1401.4) 0.051 0.63** 0.47** 0.69** 50.4 84.9 2.7
Potassium (mg/day) 2611.8 (2233.9, 3243.3) 2332.7 (1861.1, 2617.2) 0.003 0.44** 0.36** 0.43** 38.1 76.2 4.4
Magnesium (mg/day) 364.1 (306.1, 435.9) 329.8 (277.0, 382.3) 0.027 0.49** 0.33** 0.41** 38.1 84.1 1.8
Iron (mg/day) 26.1 (21.3, 30.5) 24.7 (21.3, 29.7) 0.43 0.39** 0.24* 0.44** 42.5 78.9 5.3
Zinc (mg/day) 13.4 (10.9, 15.7) 13.0 (10.4, 15.6) 0.51 0.64** 0.42** 0.68** 55.8 87.6 2.7
Selenium (μg/day) 61.4 (53.1, 69.7) 62.4 (48.7, 82.7) 0.021 0.41** 0.30** 0.32** 34.5 76.1 3.5
Copper (mg/day) 2.6 (2.0, 3.0) 2.1 (1.7, 2.8) 0.53 0.41** 0.27** 0.51** 31.9 76.1 4.4
Manganese (mg/day) 5.3 (4.3, 6.4) 5.4 (4.1, 6.2) 0.91 0.57** 0.46** 0.62** 49.6 77.9 1.8
  1. a FFQ: average of the FFQ1 and the FFQ2
  2. b 3DR: 3-day dietary records which was completed one week after the FFQ1, including two weekdays and one weekend
  3. c p –value: Wilcoxon signed rank test
  4. d r: Spearman rank correlation coefficients
  5. e r e-adj: Energy-adjusted correlation coefficient
  6. f r de-att: de-attenuated correlation coefficients
  7. g SFA: saturated fatty acid
  8. h MUFA: monounsaturated fatty acid
  9. i PUFA: polyunsaturated fatty acid
  10. j n-3 PUFA: n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid
  11. k n-6 PUFA: n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid
  12. l RAE: retinol activity equivalent
  13. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01