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Table 3 Types of cheeses in servings per day, and hypertension risk, mutually adjusted and adjusted for all other dairy sources. E3N Cohort, France 1993–2008 (N = 40,526)

From: Dairy product consumption and hypertension risk in a prospective French cohort of women

Cheeses (servings/week)CasesPerson-yearsM1M2M3
HR [95% CI]pHR [95% CI]pHR [95% CI]p
Soft cheese
 Q1 (<  0.4)2330122,759Reference0.54Reference0.68Reference0.65
 Q2 (0.4–0.8)2319123,6131.01 [0.94; 1.08] 0.98 [0.91; 1.05] 0.98 [0.92; 1.05] 
 Q3 (0.8–1.4)2372122,4591.07 [0.99; 1.15] 1.04 [0.97; 1.12] 1.03 [0.96; 1.11] 
 Q4 (>  1.4)2319124,4781.04 [0.96; 1.12] 1.00 [0.92; 1.07] 0.98 [0.91; 1.06] 
Processed cheese
 Q1 (0)3982223,391Reference< 0.0001Reference< 0.0001Reference< 0.0001
 Q2 (0–0.3)176991,1661.07 [1.01; 1.14] 1.08 [1.01; 1.15] 1.06 [0.96; 1.18] 
 Q3 (0.3–0.6)176088,3281.12 [1.06; 1.14] 1.11 [1.05; 1.18] 1.10 [1.04; 1.16] 
 Q4 (>  0.6)182990,3641.14 [1.06; 1.19] 1.12 [1.06; 1.19] 1.12 [1.06; 1.18] 
Blue cheese
 Q1 (<  0.2)2371124,255Reference0.66Reference0.35Reference0.58
 Q2 (0.2–0.7)2290122,2230.97 [0.91; 1.04] 0.98 [0.91; 1.04] 0.96 [0.90; 1.03] 
 Q3 (0.7–1.4)2367124,1941.01 [0.94; 1.08] 1.01 [0.94; 1.08] 0.99 [0.94; 1.06] 
 Q4 (>  1.4)2312122,6371.02 [0.95; 1.09] 1.03 [0.96; 1.10] 1.01 [0.96; 1.09] 
Semi-hard cheese
 Q1 (<  0.6)2385123,455Reference0.11Reference0.21Reference0.19
 Q2 (0.6–1.3)2373122,5930.99 [0.91; 1.06] 1.00 [0.93; 1.07] 1.00 [0.93; 1.06] 
 Q3 (1.3–2.4)2273123,4730.91 [0.85; 0.98] 0.92 [0.85; 0.98] 0.91 [0.90; 0.98] 
 Q4 (>  2.4)2309123,7890.94 [0.88; 1.02] 0.95 [0.89; 1.03] 0.95 [0.89; 1.03] 
Hard cheese
 Q1 (<  1.4)2314122,959Reference0.83Reference0.97Reference0.64
 Q2 (1.4–2.5)2338123,5721.05 [0.97; 1.11] 1.05 [0.98; 1.12] 1.04 [0.98; 1.11] 
 Q3 (2.5–4.1)2431122,8311.11 [1.04; 1.20] 1.11 [1.04; 1.19] 1.10 [1.02; 1.18] 
 Q4 (>  4.1)2257123,9481.00 [0.93; 1.10] 1.01 [0.94; 1.10] 1.00 [0.92; 1.08] 
Goat cheese
 Q1 (<  0.1)2407123,340Reference0.07Reference0.20Reference0.34
 Q2 (0.1–0.2)2390123,6600.97 [0.90; 1.04] 1.01 [0.94; 1.08] 1.01 [0.94; 1.08] 
 Q3 (0.2–0.4)2235122,0970.97 [0.89; 0.95] 0.93 [0.87; 0.99] 0.93 [0.87; 1.00] 
 Q4 (>  0.4)2308124,2130.97 [0.86; 1.08] 0.96 [0.90; 1.03] 0.98 [0.91; 1.05] 
  1. M1: Adjusted for energy (energy without alcohol (kcal/d)),
  2. M2: M1+ smoking status (never, former, current), education (without high school diploma, with high school diploma), family history of hypertension (no, yes), and physical activity (mets/d))
  3. M3: M2+ alcohol (g/d)), processed meat(g/d)), fruits and vegetables(g/d))
  4. Bold indicates p-values reaching statistical significance (< 0.003)