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Table 2 Descriptive characteristics of diet quality, energy and macronutrient intake, food group consumption, and snacking behavior (NutriNet-Santé study, 2016)

From: Optimism is associated with diet quality, food group consumption and snacking behavior in a general population

 Mean ± SD or Median [IQRs] or %
Diet quality (N = 17,849)
 mPNNS-GSa7.66 ± 1.51b
Energy and macronutrients (N = 19,335)
 Energy intake, kcal/d1916.52 ± 427.08
  Energy intake without alcohol, kcal/ d1855.86 ± 409.57
 Protein, %16.03 ± 2.90
 Carbohydrate, %41.25 ± 6.59
 Lipid, %39.42 ± 5.69
Food group consumption (N = 19,335)
 Fruit and vegetables, g/d485.14 ± 234.77
 Seafood, g/d36.40 ± 33.33
 Meat and poultry, g/d68.68 ± 44.26
 Processed meat, g/d12.14 [1.86, 25.76]c
 Eggs, g/d8.93 [0.00, 21.11]
 Dairy products, g/d140.01 ± 136.82
  Cheese, g/d35.97 ± 26.67
 Dairy and meat substitutes, g/d0.00 [0.00, 0.00]
 Milk-based desserts, g/d16.43 [0.00, 44.64]
 Starchy foods, g/d219.01 ± 90.31
  Whole grains, g/d40.90 ± 47.74
 Legumes, g/d0.00 [0.00, 17.86]
 Fats, g/d21.41 ± 13.95
 Sugary and fatty foods, g/d72.64 ± 54.34
 Sugar and confectionery, g/d30.31 ± 28.68
 Fast food, g/d20.09 [0.00, 47.93]
 Appetizers, g/d1.79 [0.00, 7.14]
  Salted non oleaginous appetizers, g/d0.00 [0.00, 4.76]
  Salted oleaginous appetizers, g/d0.00 [0.00, 1.43]
 Non-salted oleaginous fruits, g/d1.12 [0.00, 6.24]
 Non-alcoholic beverages, g/d552.42 ± 352.37
 Alcoholic beverages, g/d104.56 ± 141.76
Snacking behavior (N = 28,948)
 Overall snacking, %
  No15.46
  Yes84.54
 Snacking frequencies, % 
  Never15.46
  < once a week24.42
  ≥ once a week (and < once a day)42.03
  ≥ once a day18.10
  1. amPNNS-GS, modified French National Nutrition and Health Program Guideline Score
  2. bMean ± SD, all such values
  3. cMedian [IQRs], all such values