Skip to main content

Table 3 Association between dietary flavonoids intake and CVD mortality

From: Habitual dietary intake of flavonoids and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: Golestan cohort study

Flavonoids Quintile of intake p for trend
1 2 3 4 5
Total Flavonoids
Cardiovascular Disease
  No. of deaths 370 337 351 380 393  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.94 (0.81–1.09) 0.97 (0.84–1.12) 1.01 (0.87–1.16) 1.08 (0.94–1.25) 0.14
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.96 (0.82–1.11) 0.97 (0.84–1.13) 1.02 (0.88–1.18) 1.06 (0.91–1.23) 0.27
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.05 (0.86–1.31) 0.96 (0.76–1.20) 1.00 (0.80–1.25) 1.22 (0.98–1.51) 0.12
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.86 (0.70–1.05) 0.91 (0.74–1.11) 0.94 (0.78–1.15) 0.79 (0.63–0.97) 0.12
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.97 (0.82–1.15) 0.95 (0.81–1.13) 0.98 (0.83–1.16) 1.03 (0.87–1.22) 0.69
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.84 (0.61–1.15) 0.93 (0.68–1.28) 0.98 (0.72–1.34) 0.86 (0.61–1.21) 0.72
Coronary Heart Disease
  No. of deaths 174 145 147 182 187  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.85 (0.68–1.06) 0.85 (0.68–1.06) 0.83 (0.83–1.25) 0.88 (0.88–1.33) 0.14
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.84 (0.67–1.05) 0.84 (0.67–1.05) 0.99 (0.80–1.23) 1.01 (0.83–1.26) 0.44
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.83 (0.62–1.12) 0.79 (0.59–1.07) 0.67 (0.49–0.91) 0.87 (0.66–1.15) 0.15
> 60 years       
HR (95% CI) b 1 0.71 (0.52–0.99) 0.81 (0.59–1.10) 0.87 (0.64–1.17) 0.70 (0.51–0.98) 0.16
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.80 (0.62–1.04) 0.84 (0.65–1.08) 0.92 (0.72–1.17) 0.95 (0.74–1.21) 0.74
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.92 (0.58–1.44) 0.72 (0.44–1.19) 1.07 (0.68–1.68) 0.94 (0.58–1.53) 0.96
Stroke
  No. of deaths 132 117 122 120 129  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.93 (0.72–1.19) 0.97 (0.76–1.24) 0.91 (0.71–1.16) 1.02 (0.80–1.30) 0.96
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.98 (0.76–1.27) 1.01 (0.79–1.30) 0.95 (0.74–1.23) 1.05 (0.81–1.36) 0.79
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.26 (0.84–1.91) 1.18 (0.78–1.80) 1.02 (0.65–1.58) 1.42 (0.93–2.1) 0.29
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.83 (0.60–1.15) 0.86 (0.62–1.18) 0.86 (0.63–1.18) 0.79 (0.56–1.11) 0.24
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b   1.05 (0.79–1.40) 1.02 (0.77–1.36) 0.89 (0.66–1.19) 1.02 (0.76–1.37) 0.89
   > 30       
HR (95% CI) b   0.73 (0.41–1.27) 0.91 (0.53–1.56) 0.67 (0.67–1.87) 0.58 (0.58–1.77) 0.52
Flavonols
Cardiovascular Disease
  No. of deaths 379 338 337 378 399  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.91 (0.79–1.06) 0.90 (0.78–1.04) 0.96 (0.83–1.11) 1.06 (0.92–1.22) 0.26
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.93 (0.80–1.08) 0.91 (0.79–1.06) 0.98 (0.85–1.14) 1.05 (0.91–1.23) 0.34
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.03 (0.83–1.29) 0.92 (0.74–1.16) 0.99 (79–1.24) 1.22 (0.98–1.52) 0.11
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.82 (0.67–1.01) 0.85 (0.70–1.04) 0.90 (0.74–1.09) 0.78 (0.63–0.96) 0.08
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.97 (0.82–1.15) 0.87 (0.60–1.01) 0.96 (0.81–1.14) 1.02 (0.86–1.21) 0.80
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.75 (0.55–1.04) 1.00 (0.74–1.35) 0.87 (0.63–1.20) 0.88 (0.63–1.24) 0.73
Coronary Heart Disease
  No. of deaths 177 142 145 182 189  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.81 (0.65–1.01) 0.82 (0.66–1.02) 0.99 (0.80–1.22) 1.07 (0.87–1.31) 0.17
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.81 (0.65–1.01) 0.80 (0.64–1.00) 0.97 (0.81–1.25) 1.00 (0.81–1.25) 0.46
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.84 (0.61–1.15) 0.77 (0.56–1.06) 1.00 (0.74–1.35) 1.13 (0.84–1.53) 0.17
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.76 (0.55–1.04) 0.79 (0.58–1.08) 0.87 (0.64–1.18) 0.73 (0.52–1.02) 0.19
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.82 (0.63–1.05) 0.78 (0.60–1.01) 0.93 (0.73–1.19) 0.94 (0.73–1.20) 0.93
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.74 (0.46–1.18) 0.81 (0.51–1.29) 0.93 (0.58–1.47) 0.94 (0.58–1.53) 0.93
Stroke
  No. of deaths 133 123 117 116 131  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.96 (0.75–1.23) 0.91 (0.71–1.17) 0.85 (0.66–1.09) 1.01 (0.79–1.29) 0.75
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 1.02 (0.79–1.30) 0.97 (0.75–1.24) 0.90 (0.70–1.17) 1.07 (0.82–1.38) 0.95
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.47 (0.98–2.20) 1.02 (0.66–1.58) 1.03 (0.66–1.61) 1.48 (0.97–2.26) 0.35
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.78 (0.56–1.08) 0.89 (0.65–1.22) 0.79 (0.57–1.08) 0.78 (0.56–1.10) 0.19
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.10 (0.83–1.46) 0.94 (0.70–1.25) 0.86 (0.64–1.16) 1.04 (0.77–1.40) 0.65
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.71 (0.40–1.25) 1.05 (0.63–1.75) 0.98 (0.58–1.67) 1.02 (0.58–1.80) 0.64
Flavan-3-ol monomers
Cardiovascular Disease
  No. of deaths 371 330 353 384 393  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.90 (0.77–1.04) 0.98 (0.84–1.13) 0.99 (0/92–1.14) 1.06 (0.92–1.23) 0.16
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.92 (0.79–1.07) 0.97 (0.83–1.12) 1.00 (0.86–1.15) 1.04 (0.89–1.21) 0.47
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.01 (0.81–1.26) 0.92 (0.73–1.15) 1.00 (0.80–1.25) 1.20 (0.97–1.48) 0.11
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.83 (0.67–1.02) 0.93 (0.76–1.13) 0.92 (0.75–1.12) 0.76 (0.62–0.95) 0.08
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.95 (0.81–1.13) 0.95 (0.80–1.13) 0.97 (0.82–1.14) 1.01 (0.85–1.20) 0.82
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.75 (0.54–1.03) 0.92 (0.67–1.25) 0.95 (0.69–1.29) 0.84 (0.60–1.17) 0.71
Coronary Heart Disease
  No. of deaths 177 137 153 179 189  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.77 (0.62–0.97) 0.88 (0.70–1/09) 0.96 (0.78–1.19) 1.06 (0.86–1.31) 0.16
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.77 (0.61–0.96) 0.86 (0.69–1.07) 0.94 (0.76–1.16) 0.99 (0.80–1.23) 0.47
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.89 (0.65–1.22) 0.78 (0.57–1.08) 1.04 (0.77–1.41) 1.18 (0.88–1.58) 0.12
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.66 (0.46–0.89) 0.87 (0.64–1.17) 0.79 (0.58–1.06) 0.69 (0.49–0.95) 0.11
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.76 (0.59–0.99) 0.87 (0.68–1.12) 0.87 (0.68–1.11) 0.93 (0.73–1.19) 0.99
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.74 (0.46–1.17) 0.70 (0.43–1.14) 1.04 (0.67–1.61) 0.91 (0.57–1.47) 0.85
Stroke
  No. of deaths 129 119 122 123 127  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.94 (0.73–1.21) 1.00 (0.78–1.28) 0.92 (0.72–1.18) 1.00 (0.79–1.29) 0.98
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 1.01 (0.78–1.29) 1.01 (0.78–1.30) 0.97 (0.75–1.25) 1.03 (0.80–1.34) 0.91
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.35 (090–2.05) 1.18 (0.77–1.81) 1.06 (0.68–1.66) 1.42 (0.93–2.16) 0.32
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.83 (0.60–1.15) 0.86 (0.63–1.19) 0.86 (0.63–1.18) 0.77 (0.55–1.08) 0.20
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.09 (0.82–1.45) 1.01 (0.76–1.35) 0.94 (0.70–1.26) 1.01 (0.75–1.36) 0.71
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.71 (0.41–1.24) 0.96 (0.57–1.62) 1.00 (0.59–1.69) 0.97 (0.56–1.69) 0.72
Flavanones
Cardiovascular Disease
  No. of deaths 460 388 333 328 322  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.92 (0.80–1.05) 0.82 (0.71–1.05) 0.82 (0.71–0.94) 0.82 (0.71–0.95) 0.002
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.90 (0.78–1.03) 0.82 (0.71–0.94) 0.83 (0.72–0.86) 0.86 (0.73–1.00) 0.02
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.87 (0.71–1.11) 0.85 (0.69–1.05) 0.75 (0.60–0.94) 0.84 (0.67–1.05) 0.04
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.92 (0.76–1.11) 0.77 (0.63–0.95) 0.98 (0.80–1.20) 0.94 (0.76–1.17) 0.66
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.87 (0.74–1.01) 0.79 (0.68–0.93) 0.82 (0.70–0.97) 0.86 (0.72–1.03) 0.04
  > 30       
HR (95% CI) b 1 1.08 (0.77–1.52) 0.89 (0.63–1.26) 0.94 (0.67–1.32) 0.93 (0.66–1.32) 0.48
Coronary heart disease
  No. of deaths 195 176 161 143 160  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.97 (0.79–1.19) 0.92 (0.74–1.13) 0.84 (0.67–1.04) 0.95 (0.77–1.17) 0.30
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.95 (0.77–1.16) 0.88 (0.71–1.10) 0.82 (0.65–1.02) 0.92 (0.73–1.16) 0.22
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.94 (0.70–1.27) 1.02 (0.76–1.37) 0.81 (0.59–1.12) 1.05 (0.77–1.43) 0.92
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.97 (0.72–1.29) 0.76 (0.55–1.05) 0.89 (0.65–1.22) 0.86 (0.61–1.20) 0.27
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.98 (0.78–1.23) 0.89 (0.70–1.13) 0.91 (0.71–1.16) 0.98 (0.75–1.26) 0.63
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.82 (0.50–1.35) 0.86 (0.53–1.37) 0.56 (0.34–0.94) 0.78 (0.48–1.27) 0.15
Stroke
  No. of deaths 158 139 109 115 99  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.98 (0.78–1.23) 0.80 (0.63–1.03) 0.86 (0.68–1.10) 0.76 (0.58–0.98) 0.01
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.94 (0.74–1.18) 0.78 (0.61–1.00) 0.87 (0.68–1.11) 0.80 (0.61–1.06) 0.08
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.72 (0.49–1.05) 0.67 (0.45–0.99) 0.79 (0.54–1.16) 0.68 (0.44–1.04) 0.14
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.10 (0.82–1.48) 0.88 (0.63–1.21) 0.98 (0.70–1.36) 0.96 (0.68–1.36) 0.60
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.84 (0.65–1.08) 0.76 (0.58–1.00) 0.76 (0.57–1.01) 0.74 (0.55–1.01) 0.03
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.80 (0.98–3.31) 1.09 (0.56–2.13) 1.69 (0.92–3.08) 1.37 (0.72–2.59) 0.52
Flavones
Cardiovascular Disease
  No. of deaths 466 359 349 332 325  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.84 (0.73–0.97) 0.86 (0.75–0.99) 0.82 (0.71–0.94) 0.81 (0.70–0.93) 0.004
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.87 (0.76–1.00) 0.89 (0.77–1.03) 0.84 (0.72–0.98) 0.85 (0.72–1.00) 0.04
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.76 (0.61–0.94) 0.82 (0.66–1.01) 0.87 (0.70–1.08) 0.82 (0.65–1.03) 0.32
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.95 (0.79–1.14) 0.95 (0.78–1.16) 0.80 (0.64–0.99) 0.92 (0.73–1.14) 0.17
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.89 (0.76–1.04) 0.85 (0.81–1.12) 0.88 (0.74–1.04) 0.86 (0.72–1.03) 0.12
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.79 (0.57–1.10) 0.70 (0.50–0.99) 0.75 (0.53–1.04) 0.83 (0.59–1.15) 0.30
Coronary Heart Disease
  No. of deaths 186 160 159 171 159  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.93 (0.75–1.15) 0.97 (0.78–1.19) 1.03 (0.84–1.28) 0.97 (0.78–1.20) 0.82
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.96 (0.77–1.19) 0.97 (0.77–1.21) 1.04 (0.83–1.29) 0.97 (0.76–1.23) 0.92
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.84 (0.61–1.14) 0.86 (0.63–1.17) 1.05 (0.77–1.42) 0.95 (0.68–1.31) 0.68
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.06 (0.79–1.44) 1.11 (0.81–1.52) 1.00 (0.71–1.39) 1.02 (0.72–1.46) 0.97
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.90 (0.71–1.15) 0.99 (0.78–1.24) 1.09 (0.85–1.39) 0.82 (0.71–1.22) 0.82
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.22 (0.75–1.99) 0.93 (0.55–1.57) 0.91 (0.54–1.54) 1.15 (0.69–1.91) 0.98
Stroke
  No. of deaths 171 127 121 101 100  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.83 (0.66–1.05) 0.85 (0.67–1.08) 0.71 (0.55–0.91) 0.70 (0.55–0.90) 0.002
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.84 (0.67–1.07) 0.86 (0.67–1.10) 0.71 (0.55–0.93) 0.74 (0.56–0.98) 0.01
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.63 (0.42–0.94) 0.77 (0.52–1.13) 0.66 (0.44–0.99) 0.63 (0.41–0.98) 0.07
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.97 (0.72–1.30) 0.90 (0.66–1.24) 0.74 (0.52–1.05) 0.84 (0.59–1.21) 0.14
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.92 (0.71–1.20) 0.96 (0.73–1.26) 0.75 (0.56–1.02) 0.74 (0.54–1.03) 0.03
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.58 (0.33–1.01) 0.59 (0.34–1.03) 0.60 (0.34–1.04) 0.70 (0.40–1.20) 0.29
Isoflavnoids
Cardiovascular Disease
  No. of deaths 438 396 350 326 321  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.96 (0.84–1.10) 0.89 (0.77–1.03) 0.88 (0.76–1.01) 0.89 (0.77–1.03) 0.05
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.96 (0.84–1.10) 0.91 (0.79–1.05) 0.91 (0.79–1.06) 0.96 (0.82–1.11) 0.42
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.06 (0.87–1.31) 0.96 (0.77–1.19) 0.90 (0.72–1.12) 0.95 (0.76–1.19) 0.30
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.86 (0.72–1.04) 0.86 (0.71–1.05) 0.95 (0.77–1.16) 0.95 (0.77–1.16) 0.78
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.89 (0.77–1.04) 0.88 (0.75–1.04) 0.90 (0.77–1.07) 0.94 (0.80–1.12) 0.53
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.27 (0.92–1.74) 1.05 (0.76–1.46) 0.98 (0.70–1.37) 1.03 (0.72–1.47) 0.58
Coronary Heart Disease
  No. of deaths 186 179 174 155 141  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 1.01 (0.82–1.24) 1.03 (0.83–1.27) 0.96 (0.78–1.19) 0.90 (0.72–1.12) 0.34
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 1.00 (0.81–1.23) 1.02 (0.82–1.26) 0.95 (0.76–1.19) 0.90 (0.72–1.13) 0.36
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.08 (0.81–1.45) 1.01 (0.74–1.36) 0.88 (0.65–1.21) 0.94 (0.69–1.29) 0.36
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.90 (0.67–1.22) 1.02 (0.75–1.38) 1.05 (0.76–1.43) 0.82 (0.59–1.16) 0.61
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.96 (0.76–1.21) 1.01 (0.80–1.28) 0.93 (0.73–1.20) 0.87 (0.68–1.13) 0.34
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.20 (0.74–1.94) 1.09 (0.67–1.78) 1.05 (0.65–1.72) 1.03 (0.60–1.73) 0.90
Stroke
  No. of deaths 155 144 104 105 112  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 1.01 (0.80–1.27) 0.77 (0.60–0.99) 0.83 (0.65–1.06) 0.92 (0.72–1.18) 0.96
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.99 (0.79–1.25) 0.78 (0.61–1.01) 0.88 (0.68–1.14) 1.04 (0.81–1.34) 0.78
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.22 (0.83–1.80) 1.03 (0.68–1.50) 1.04 (0.69–1.57) 0.96 (0.62–1.48) 0.61
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.87 (0.65–1.17) 0.65 (0.47–0.91) 0.80 (0.58–1.12) 1.10 (0.81–1.51) 1.00
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.87 (0.67–1.13) 0.75 (0.56–1.00) 0.84 (0.63–1.12) 1.00 (0.76–1.33) 0.77
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.69 (1.00–2.86) 1.01 (0.56–1.82) 1.18 (0.66–2.10) 1.31 (0.71–2.44) 0.91
Anthocianidins
Cardiovascular Disease
  No. of deaths 403 326 350 362 390  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.85 (0.73–0.98) 0.90 (0.78–1.04) 0.91 (0.79–1.05) 1.02 (0.88–1.17) 0.53
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.86 (0.75–1.00) 0.92 (0.79–1.06) 0.92 (0.79–1.06) 1.01 (0.87–1.17) 0.67
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.90 (0.73–1.11) 0.76 (0.61–0.94) 0.79 (0.64–0.97) 0.76 (0.62–0.93) 0.32
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.84 (0.68–1.02) 0.89 (0.73–1.09) 0.89 (0.73–1.08) 0.77 (0.62–0.95) 0.059
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.89 (0.75–1.05) 0.91 (0.77–1.07) 0.87 (0.74–1.03) 0.99 (0.84–1.17) 0.85
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.74 (0.53–1.01) 0.86 (0.63–1.17) 0.93 (0.68–1.27) 0.79 (0.56–1.10) 0.46
Coronary Heart Disease
  No. of deaths 192 133 159 169 182  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.72 (0.57–0.89) 0.85 (0.69–1.05) 0.88 (0.72–1.09) 0.98 (0.80–1.20) 0.56
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.71 (0.57–0.89) 0.83 (0.67–1.03) 0.85 (0.69–1.05) 0.92 (0.74–1.14) 0.90
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.72 (0.53–0.99) 0.82 (0.60–1.11) 0.90 (0.67–1.22) 1.02 (0.76–1.37) 0.40
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.66 (0.48–0.92) 0.80 (0.59–1.09) 0.72 (0.53–0.98) 0.68 (0.49–0.94) 0.04
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.72 (0.56–0.93) 0.85 (0.67–1.09) 0.79 (0.62–1.01) 0.86 (0.67–1.09) 0.39
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.65 (0.40–1.04) 0.68 (0.42–1.09) 0.94 (0.60–1.47) 0.87 (0.55–1.40) 0.98
Stroke
  No. of deaths 142 120 115 113 130  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.91 (0.71–1.16) 0.86 (0.67–1.11) 0.83 (0.64–1.16) 0.99 (0.78–1.26) 0.67
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.96 (0.75–1.22) 0.91 (0.71–1.17) 0.86 (0.66–1.11) 1.-04 (0.81–1.34) 0.91
Age
   < 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.02 (0.69–1.50) 0.89 (0.59–1.34) 0.71 (0.45–1.10) 1.21 (0.81–1.80) 0.80
   > 60 years       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.88 (0.64–1.21) 0.87 (0.63–1.19) 0.88 (0.64–1.21) 0.83 (0.59–1.17) 0.34
BMI
   < 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.04 (0.79–1.37) 0.88 (0.66–1.17) 0.78 (0.58–1.05) 1.04 (0.78–1.39) 0.57
   > 30       
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.64 (0.36–1.14) 0.98 (0.59–1.64) 1.08 (0.65–1.80) 0.89 (0.51–1.56) 0.74
Dihydrochalcones
Cardiovascular Disease
  No. of deaths 762 374 381 314  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 1.01 (0.89–1.14) 1.00 (0.88–1.13) 0.83 (0.73–0.95) 0.02
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 1.01 (0.89–1.14) 0.83 (0.73–0.95) 0.86 (0.75–0.99) 0.10
Age
   < 60 years      
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.95 (0.79–1.14) 1.08 (0.90–1.29) 0.96 (0.80–1.17) 0.91
   > 60 years      
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.05 (0.88–1.24) 0.99 (0.83–1.18) 0.81 (0.67–0.98) 0.07
BMI
   < 30      
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.04 (0.91–1.20) 1.05 (0.91–1.20) 0.87 (0.74–1.02) 0.25
   > 30      
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.82 (0.61–1.10) 0.91 (0.69–1.20) 0.79 (0.60–1.04) 0.13
Coronary Heart Disease
  No. of deaths 335 159 187 154  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.97 (0.93–1.33) 1.11 (0.93–1.33) 0.93 (0.77–1.12) 0.90
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.96 (0.80–1.17) 1.11 (0.92–1.33) 0.93 (0.76–1.13) 0.90
Age
   < 60 years      
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.95 (0.72–1.23) 1.16 (0.90–1.49) 1.09 (0.84–1.42) 0.27
   > 60 years      
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.98 (0.74–1.28) 1.11 (0.85–1.45) 0.79 (0.58–1.07) 0.36
BMI
   < 30      
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.03 (0.84–1.27) 1.16 (0.95–1.42) 0.88 (0.70–1.10) 0.76
   > 30      
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.67 (0.42–1.07) 0.96 (0.64–1.44) 1.02 (0.69–1.49) 0.80
Stroke
  No. of deaths 270 139 130 91  
  Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) a 1 0.99 (0.80–1.23) 0.97 (0.78–1.19) 0.68 (0.54–0.87) 0.008
  Multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI) b 1 0.98 (0.79–1.21) 0.96 (0.78–1.19) 0.71 (0.56–0.91) 0.02
Age
   < 60 years      
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.81 (0.57–1.16) 1.14 (0.83–1.57) 0.76 (0.52–1.12) 0.49
   > 60 years      
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.09 (0.84–1.42) 0.88 (0.66–1.17) 0.71 (0.52–0.98) 0.04
BMI
   < 30      
  HR (95% CI) b 1 0.88 (0.71–1.00) 0.95 (0.75–1.21) 0.70 (0.53–0.93) 0.03
   > 30      
  HR (95% CI) b 1 1.38 (0.88–1.53) 1.10 (0.69–1.76) 0.76 (0.45–1.27) 0.36