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Table 3 Energy-adjusted fruit and vegetable consumption from pre- to mid-pregnancy and LBW risk

From: Fruit and vegetable consumption before and during pregnancy and birth weight of new-borns in Japan: the Tohoku medical megabank project birth and three-generation cohort study

  From pre- to early pregnancy From early to mid-pregnancy
Quartiles Crude model Multivariable modela Crude model Multivariable modela
  OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Fruit
 First quartile Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Second quartile 0.81 0.68–0.97 0.81 0.68–0.98 0.88 0.73–1.06 0.88 0.72–1.06
 Third quartile 0.75 0.62–0.90 0.76 0.62–0.92 1.03 0.86–1.23 1.01 0.84–1.22
 Fourth quartile 0.78 0.65–0.93 0.79 0.65–0.95 0.84 0.69–1.01 0.83 0.69–1.01
P for trend 0.004   0.01   0.22   0.22  
Vegetables
 First quartile Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Second quartile 0.97 0.81–1.17 1.00 0.83–1.22 1.08 0.90–1.30 1.05 0.87–1.28
 Third quartile 0.94 0.78–1.13 1.00 0.82–1.23 0.97 0.81–1.17 0.95 0.78–1.16
 Fourth quartile 0.98 0.82–1.18 1.07 0.88–1.32 1.03 0.86–1.24 1.04 0.85–1.28
P for trend 0.78   0.57   0.97   0.97  
  1. aAdjusted for maternal age (continuous variable), pre-pregnancy BMI (< 18.5; 18.5 to 25.0; ≥25.0 kg/m2), parity (never; one or more), educational attainment (high school graduate or less; junior college or vocational college graduate; university graduate or above; others), household income (< 4,000,000; 4,000,000-5,999,999; ≥ 6,000,000 Japanese Yen/year), cigarette smoking (never; stop before pregnancy; stop after pregnancy; current), alcohol drinking (never; former; current), folic acid supplementation during pregnancy (yes vs. no), total fruit, vegetable, meat, fish, grain, potato, bean, and daily product consumption (in quartiles) except for the exposures
  2. All dietary consumption was energy-adjusted using the residual method
  3. P for trends were calculated as trends across categories
  4. BMI Body mass index; LBW Low birth weight; 95% CI 95% confidence interval; OR Odds ratio