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Table 1 Characteristics of pregnant women and new-borns

From: Fruit and vegetable consumption before and during pregnancy and birth weight of new-borns in Japan: the Tohoku medical megabank project birth and three-generation cohort study

  Mean ± SD or n (%)
n 17,610
General characteristics
 Maternal age (years) 31.8 ± 4.9
 Height (cm) 158.4 ± 5.3
 Pre-pregnancy weight (kg) 54.2 ± 9.2
Pre-pregnancy BMIa
  < 18.5 (kg/m2) 2325 (13.2)
 18.5 ≤ BMI < 25.0 (kg/m2) 12,828 (72.8)
  ≥ 25.0 (kg/m2) 2213 (12.6)
 Missing 244 (1.4)
Parity
 Never 8011 (45.5)
 One or more 9570 (54.3)
 Missing 29 (0.2)
Educational attainment
 High school graduate or less 3685 (20.9)
 Junior college or vocational college graduate 4392 (24.9)
 University graduate or above 3311 (18.8)
 Others 26 (0.1)
 Missing 6196 (35.2)
Household income
  <  4,000,000 (Japanese Yen/year) 6069 (34.5)
 4,000,000-5,999,999 (Japanese Yen/year) 5481 (31.1)
  ≥ 6,000,000 (Japanese Yen/year) 5263 (29.9)
 Missing 797 (4.5)
Cigarette smoking
 Never 10,639 (60.4)
 Stoped before pregnancy 4078 (23.2)
 Stoped after pregnancy 2437 (13.8)
 Current 400 (2.3)
 Missing 56 (0.3)
Alcohol consumption
 Never 8011 (45.5)
 Former 6078 (34.5)
 Current 3480 (19.8)
 Missing 41 (0.2)
Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy
 Yes 9904 (56.2)
 No 7678 (43.6)
 Missing 28 (0.2)
Dietary and nutrient consumption (From pre- to early pregnancy)b
 Total fruit consumption (g/d) 152.1 ± 142.2
 Total vegetable consumption (g/d) 155.3 ± 112.9
 Total meat consumption (g/d) 77.1 ± 46.8
 Total fish consumption (g/d) 37.4 ± 34.3
 Total grain consumption (g/d) 426.7 ± 120.2
 Total potato consumption (g/d) 24.5 ± 19.1
 Total bean consumption (g/d) 59.6 ± 62.8
 Total dairy product consumption (g/d) 202.7 ± 241.2
 Maternal total energy consumption (kcal) 1686.2 ± 591.1
 Protein consumption (g/d) 57.6 ± 11.1
 Fat consumption (g/d) 57.7 ± 14.3
 Carbohydrate consumption (g/d) 213.2 ± 37.4
 Iron consumption (mg/d) 6.5 ± 1.7
 Folate consumption (μg/d) 258.8 ± 99.2
 Magnesium consumption (mg/d) 215.4 ± 46.4
 Vitamin C consumption (mg/d) 83.5 ± 46.2
Dietary and nutrient consumption (From early to mid pregnancy)b
 Total fruit consumption (g/d) 146.8 ± 129.0
 Total vegetable consumption (g/d) 146.5 ± 92.5
 Total meat consumption (g/d) 74.4 ± 41.7
 Total fish consumption (g/d) 35.6 ± 28.1
 Total grain consumption (g/d) 408.2 ± 110.2
 Total potato consumption (g/d) 23.9 ± 18.3
 Total bean consumption (g/d) 56.0 ± 60.4
 Total dairy product consumption (g/d) 224.4 ± 250.2
 Maternal total energy consumption (kcal) 1612.4 ± 560.9
 Protein consumption (g/d) 56.0 ± 10.0
 Fat consumption (g/d) 55.9 ± 12.8
 Carbohydrate consumption (g/d) 204.1 ± 33.0
 Iron consumption (mg/d) 6.2 ± 1.6
 Folate consumption (μg/d) 244.0 ± 83.9
 Magnesium consumption (mg/d) 205.8 ± 41.8
 Vitamin C consumption (mg/d) 78.2 ± 40.5
Outcomes of infants
 Birth weight (g) 3061.8 ± 354.1
LBW
  < 2500 (g) 951 (5.4)
  1. aBMI was calculated by dividing the pre-pregnancy weight (kg) by the square of height (m2)
  2. bEnergy-adjusted using the residual method except for maternal total energy consumption
  3. BMI Body mass index; LBW Low birth weight; SD Standard deviation