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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies investigating the effects of GCE supplementation on glycemic and lipid measures

From: The effects of green coffee extract supplementation on glycemic indices and lipid profile in adults: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of clinical trials

Author, year Design Participants, n Health condition Age, year1 Intervention Duration (week) Outcomes (changes)1 Adjust/matching
Treatment group Control group Treatment group Control group
Park et al. 2010 [23] RA/DB/ Parallel F: 43, Int: 23, Con: 20 Overweight/ obesity Int: 33.1 ± 9.20
Con: 33.1 ± 9.79
200 mg/d GCE containing 56.8 mg CGA Placebo 8 TG: −19.82 ± 43.73 mg/dL
TC: − 1.65 ± 16.64 mg/dL
LDL: − 1.26 ± 15.10 mg/dL
HDL: − 2.35 ± 5.27 mg/dL
FBG: − 1.78 ± 7.91 mg/dL
Insulin: − 0.87 ± 3.88 μU/L
TG: − 3.30 ± 33.18 mg/dL
TC: − 1.55 ± 38.10 mg/dL
LDL: − 1.05 ± 37.65 mg/dL
HDL: − 1.95 ± 7.55 mg/dL
FBG: − 2.20 ± 6.30 mg/dL
Insulin: − 1.11 ± 3.44 μU/L
No
Haidari et al. 2017 [19] RA/DB/ Parallel F: 64, Int: 30, Con: 34 Obesity Int: 20–45
Con: 20–45
400 mg/d GCE containing 180 mg CGA Placebo 8 TG: −4.0 ± 20.79 mg/dL
TC: − 12.0 ± 8.46 mg/dL
LDL: − 11.0 ± 8.11 mg/dL
HDL: 1.0 ± 1.00 mg/dL
FBG: − 0.9 ± 3.61 mg/dL
Insulin: − 0.1 ± 0.42 μU/L
TG: −5.0 ± 16.53 mg/dL
TC: − 5.0 ± 8.29 mg/dL
LDL: − 2.0 ± 5.55 mg/dL
HDL: − 2.0 ± 0.90 mg/dL
FBG: − 0.34 ± 3.42 mg/dL
Insulin: 0.20 ± 0.44 μU/L
Fat mass, fiber and energy intake, physical activity
Shahmohammadi et al. 2017 [26] RA/DB/ Parallel F/M: 44, Int: 22, Con: 22 Overweight and NAFLD Int: 41.36 ± 7.69
Con: 44.50 ± 5.24
1000 mg/d GCE containing 500 mg CGA Placebo 8 TG: − 37.77 ± 31.62 mg/dL
TC: − 16.96 ± 20.10 mg/dL
LDL: − 2.41 ± 14.73 mg/dL
HDL: − 0.36 ± 7.53 mg/dL
FBG: − 6.91 ± 5.27 mg/dL
Insulin: − 0.87 ± 1.85 μU/L
TG: − 2.41 ± 34.83 mg/dL
TC: 0.55 ± 20.87 mg/dL
LDL: − 5.72 ± 12.08 mg/dL
HDL: 0.31 ± 4.00 mg/dL
FBG: − 2.36 ± 8.57 mg/dL
Insulin: − 0.15 ± 1.50 μU/L
No
Roshan et al. 2018 [24] RA/DB/ Parallel F/M: 43, Int: 21, Con: 22 Metabolic syndrome Int: 52.76 ± 9.83, Con: 51.95 ± 8.67 800 mg/d GCE containing 368 mg CGA Placebo 8 TG: − 6.19 ± 53.09 mg/dL
TC: 1.54 ± 39.38 mg/dL
LDL: 3.86 ± 18.14 mg/dL
HDL: 1.93 ± 8.49 mg/dL
FBG: − 5.04 ± 60.18 mg/dL
Insulin: − 2.82 ± 4.2 μU/L
TG: − 22.12 ± 76.99 mg/dL
TC: 1.54 ± 27.79 mg/dL
LDL: 3.86 ± 29.72 mg/dL
HDL: 1.93 ± 3.47 mg/dL
FBG: 29.36 ± 40 mg/dL
Insulin: − 0.39 ± 6.46 μU/L
Sex
Zuniga et al. 2018 [29] RA/DB/ Parallel F/M: 26, Int: 12, Con: 14 IGT 30–60 1200 mg/d CGA Placebo 12 TG: − 26.55 ± 31.90 mg/dL
TC: − 7.72 ± 13.91 mg/dL
LDL: − 15.45 ± 25.9 mg/dL
HDL: 3.86 ± 9.29 mg/dL
FBG: − 3.61 ± 4.55 mg/dL
TG: 8.85 ± 39.17 mg/dL
TC: 15.45 ± 23.48 mg/dL
LDL: 3.86 ± 25.66 mg/dL
HDL: 0 ± 9.29 mg/dL
FBG: 1.8 ± 4.33 mg/dL
No
Aghaei et al. 2018 [17] RA/SB/Cross-over F: 30, Int: 15, Con: 15 Overweight Int: 30.4 ± 26.82, Con: 28.5 ± 20.53 Training plus 90 mg/d GCE added to a 250 mL water Training 8 TG: − 10.8 ± 25.56 mg/dL
TC: − 6.67 ± 17.12 mg/dL
LDL: − 3.7 ± 12.55 mg/dL
HDL: 4.1 ± 4.66 mg/dL
TG: − 59.44 ± 45.60 mg/dL
TC: − 21.8 ± 27.47 mg/dL
LDL: − 9.26 ± 17.11 mg/dL
HDL: 0.06 ± 5.59 mg/dL
No
Kim et al. 2012 RA/DB/ Parallel F: 20, Int: 10, Con: 10 Obesity > 18 100 mg/d GCE containing 29.4 mg CGA Placebo 8 TC: − 2.5 ± 12.22 mg/dL
FBG: − 2.8 ± 3.75 mg/dL
TC: −2.4 ± 32.47 mg/dL
FBG: 2.7 ± 4.28 mg/dL
No
Kozuma et al. 2005 [20] RA/DB/ Parallel M: 117, Int 1: 29, Int 2: 28, Int 3: 31, Con: 29 Hypertension Int 1: 42.9 ± 8.2, Int 2: 43.3 ± 8.3, Int 3: 43.4 ± 8.4, Con: 43.1 ± 9.1 Int 1: 46 mg/d GCE containing 25 mg CGA
Int 2: 93 mg/d GCE containing 50 mg CGA
Int 3: 185 mg/d GCE containing 100 mg CGA
GCE was added to a cup of hot water
Control drink 4 Int 1: TG: 1.3 ± 40.3 mg/dL
TC: 4.3 ± 19.04 mg/dL
LDL: 3 ± 18.02 mg/dL
HDL: 0 ± 11.0 mg/dL
Int 2: TG: 2.3 ± 46.9 mg/dL
TC: − 7.1 ± 19.73 mg/dL
LDL: − 4.6 ± 22.13 mg/dL
HDL: 0 ± 8.34 mg/dL
Int 3: TG: 6.2 ± 38.9 mg/dL
TC: − 7.3 ± 17.09 mg/dL
LDL: − 8.2 ± 19.07 mg/dL
HDL: 0 ± 8.98 mg/dL
TG: 4.7 ± 38.33 mg/dL
TC: − 1.6 ± 19.73 mg/dL
LDL: − 4.5 ± 19.83 mg/dL
HDL: 0 ± 7.46 mg/dL
Blood pressure
Watanabe et al. 2006 [28] RA/DB/ Parallel M/F: 28, Int: 14, Con: 14 Hypertension Int: 52 ± 11, Con: 51 ± 8 480 mg/d GCE containing 140 mg CGA in the form of a drink Placebo drink 12 TG: 4.0 ± 61.51 mg/dL
TC: − 3.0 ± 22.75 mg/dL
LDL: 3.0 ± 16.56 mg/dL
HDL: 1.0 ± 11.22 mg/dL
FBG: 1.0 ± 13.48 mg/dL
TG: − 4.0 ± 112.30 mg/dL
TC: 12.0 ± 27.43 mg/dL
LDL: 14.0 ± 22.75 mg/dL
HDL: 6.0 ± 15.78 mg/dL
FBG: 1.0 ± 24.87 mg/dL
No
Lopez et al. 2019 [21] RA/SB/Cross-over M/F: 52,:
Int: 26, Con: 26
Normocholesterolemics (n = 25) 18–45 Daily intake of roasted/unroasted green coffee beverage containing 445.2 mg CGA Control drink 8 TG: −0.3 ± 21.30 mg/dL
TC: 2.2 ± 14.08 mg/dL
LDL: 0.5 ± 14.10 mg/dL
HDL: 2.3 ± 8.90 mg/dL
TG: − 1.3 ± 21.43 mg/dL
TC: 1.2 ± 14.57 mg/dL
LDL: − 0.2 ± 12.18 mg/dL
HDL: 0.8 ± 8.70 mg/dL
No
Hypercholesterolemics (n = 27) TG: − 20.4 ± 23.38 mg/dL
TC: − 21.0 ± 15.94 mg/dL
LDL: − 18.8 ± 15.90 mg/dL
HDL: − 0.4 ± 9.90 mg/dL
TG: − 16.7 ± 23.52 mg/dL
TC: − 14.3 ± 15.51 mg/dL
LDL: − 15.3 ± 13.83 mg/dL
HDL: − 3.7 ± 9.66 mg/dL
Suzuki et al. 2019 [27] DB/Parallel M: 16, Int: 8, Con: 8 Healthy Int: 44.6 ± 6.2
Con: 44.2 ± 5.4
Daily intake of GCE containing 300 mg CGA in the form of a drink Control drink 2 TG: 3.7 ± 24.82 mg/dL
TC: 2.4 ± 22.32 mg/dL
LDL: 3.0 ± 18.72 mg/dL
HDL: 0.5 ± 7.08 mg/dL
FBG: − 0.7 ± 3.16 mg/dL
TG: 4.5 ± 25.20 mg/dL
TC: − 3.4 ± 14.80 mg/dL
LDL: − 1.1 ± 12.91 mg/dL
HDL: − 0.7 ± 4.64 mg/dL
FBG: 0.7 ± 2.84 mg/dL
No
Fukagawa et al. 2017 [18] RA/DB/ Parallel F: 49, Int: 23
Con: 26
Mildly xerotic skin 25–40 Daily intake of GCE containing 270 mg CGA in the form of a drink Control drink 8 TG: 3.6 ± 28.13 mg/dL
TC: − 2.6 ± 13.98 mg/dL
LDL: − 1.4 ± 15.57 mg/dL
HDL: − 2.2 ± 10.07 mg/dL
FBG: 0.4 ± 4.89 mg/dL
Insulin: 0.04 ± 3.16 μU/L
TG: 9.9 ± 77.97 mg/dL
TC: 2.9 ± 21.25 mg/dL
LDL: 1.9 ± 18.05 mg/dL
HDL: 0.8 ± 8.87 mg/dL
FBG: 0.7 ± 6.94 mg/dL
Insulin: 3.44 ± 6.97 μU/L
No
Sarria et al. 2018 [25] RA/SB/Cross-over M/F: 52,:
Int: 26, Con: 26
Normocholesterolemics (n = 25) 18–45 Daily intake of roasted/unroasted green coffee beverage containing 445.2 mg CGA Control drink 8 FBG: −3.0 ± 4.92 mg/dL
Insulin: − 0.05 ± 1.20 μU/L
FBG: 0.9 ± 4.60 mg/dL
Insulin: 1.08 ± 1.17 μU/L
No
Hypercholesterolemics (n = 27) FBG: − 3.75 ± 5.44 mg/dL
Insulin: − 0.39 ± 1.43 μU/L
FBG: − 2.38 ± 5.02 mg/dL
Insulin: − 0.15 ± 1.39 μU/L
 
Ochiai et al. 2004 [22] Parallel M: 20, Int: 10, Con: 10 Healthy > 18 Daily intake of a beverage containing GCE and 140 mg CGA Control drink 16 TG: 7.8 ± 144.45 mg/dL
TC: − 3.7 ± 27.53 mg/dL
LDL: 0.5 ± 20.12 mg/dL
HDL: − 3.3 ± 9.31 mg/dL
FBG: − 4.2 ± 6.64 mg/dL
TG: − 5.2 ± 81.38 mg/dL
TC: 2.3 ± 20.17 mg/dL
LDL: 8.9 ± 15.01 mg/dL
HDL: − 1.7 ± 9.49 mg/dL
FBG: − 3.1 ± 4.75 mg/dL
No
  1. 1Values are mean ± SD or range (for age)
  2. Abbreviations: GCE green coffee extract, CGA chlorogenic acid, M male, F female, RA randomized, DB double-blinded, SB single-blinded, Con control, TG triglycerides, TC total cholesterol, LDL low-density lipoprotein, HDL high-density lipoprotein, FBG fasting blood glucose, NAFLD non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, IGT impaired glucose tolerance