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Table 1 Characteristics of studies on whole grains intake and digestive tract cancers risk. (This table should be placed on line 132 in the sixth page)

From: Association of whole grains intake and the risk of digestive tract cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Country Cancer site Study design Diet assessment Simple
(cases)
Intake comparison, High vs. low RR/OR
(95% CI)
Adjustment variables Quality score
Ruth 1989 [23] America CRC Case-control Standard questionnaire 294 (147) ≥5 vs ≤1 servings/week 0.6 (0.4,1.1) Age, education 7
Sandro 1994 [24] Italy CRC Case-control Standard questionnaire 264 (132) Highest vs Lowest 1.03(0.54,1.95) Age, sex, education, smoking, modification of diet in the past. 7
Martha 1997 [25] America CRC Case-control Frequency questionnaire 4403 (1993) >  1.9 vs < 0.5
servings/day
1.0 (0.8,1.4) Age, body mass index, physical activity, use of aspirin/NSAID, presence or absence of a first-degree relative with colorectal cancer, total energy intake and calcium 7
Cullouh 2003 [18] America CRC Cohort Frequency questionnaire, 68 items 133,163 (508) ≥11.0 vs < 2.0
servings/week
≥11.2 vs < 2.5
servings/week
Man
0.95 (0.64,1.42)
Woman
1.17 (0.73,1.87)
Age, exercise metabolic equivalent of tasks, aspirin, smoking, family history of colorectal cancer, body mass index, education, energy 7
Wu 2004 [26] America CRC Cohort Frequency questionnaire,
131 food items
51,129 (561) Highest vs Lowest 0.75 (0.57,1.00) Age, family history of colorectal cancer in first degree relative, history of endoscopy, physical activity, pack years of smoking before age 30, race, aspirin use, energy 7
Larsson 2005 [27] Swedish CRC Cohort Frequency Questionnaire
67 food items
61,433 (805) ≥4.5 vs < 1.5
servings/day
0.80 (0.60,1.06) Age, body mass index, education, energy, saturated fat, calcium, red meat, fruits and vegetables 7
Carl 2006 [19] America CRC Cohort Frequency questionnaire
127 food items
35,197 (757) ≥19 v ≤ 3.5
servings/week
0.81 (0.66,0.99) Age 7
Schatzkin 2007 [28] America CRC Cohort Frequency questionnaire
124 food items
567,169 (2974) 1.3 vs 0.2
servings /day
0.79 (0.70,0.89) Age, sex, physical activity, smoking, HRT (women), red meat, dietary calcium, dietary folate, energy 8
Christin 2009 [29] America CRC Case-control Frequency questionnaire
124 food items
1904
(945)
2.8 vs 16.4
servings/week
2.9 vs 18.9
servings/week
Whites
0.93 (0.66,1.31)
African-Americans
0.67 (0.21,1.42)
Adjusted for age, sex, education, income, BMI 1 year ago, physical activity, family history, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and total energy intake. 7
Egeberg 2010 [30] Denmark CRC Cohort Frequency Questionnaire
192 food items
160,725
(744)
> 160 vs ≤75
g/day
Colon cancer, men
0.61 (0.43,0.86)
Rectal cancer, men
0.88 (0.57,1.36)
Colon cancer, women
0.92 (0.63,1.35)
Rectal cancer, women
0.81 (0.50,1.30)
Age, body mass index, alcohol intake, school education, red and processed meat, HRT (women), leisure time physical activity 7
Fung 2010 [31] America CRC Cohort Frequency questionnaire
140 food items
132,746 (2464) High vs Low Men
0.94 (0.88,0.99)
Women
0.95 (0.89,1.02)
Age, body mass index, alcohol, family history of colorectal cancer, colonoscopy, history of polyps, 8
Kyro 2013 [32] Denmark CRC Cohort Frequency questionnaire 10,800
(1123)
Men > 71 vs < 31
Women > 68 vs < 30
g/day
0.86(0.69,1.06) Alcohol intake, smoking status, education, intake of red and processed meat, BMI, and energy intake 7
Suhad 2015 [33] Jordan CRC Case-control Frequency questionnaire
109 food items
407 (167) 1/4 the time
vs All the time
0.32(0.12,0.84) Odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and tests for trend for CRC by weekly consumption 8
Reema 2016 [34] Jordan CRC Case-control Frequency questionnaire 501 (220) ≥3/4 vs < 1/4 of the Meals 0.44 (0.22,0.92) Adjusted for age, gender, total energy, red meat consumption, physical activity, smoke 9
Sandro 2016 [35] Brazil CRC Case-control Frequency questionnaire 270 (169) 1.2 vs 4.1 serving/month 0.96(0.92,1.01) Different types of food 7
Bakken 2016 [36] Norway CRC Cohort Frequency questionnaire 78,254 (795) > 34 vs < 180 g/day 0.89 (0.72,1.09) Age as the time scale and adjusted for body mass index, hormone replacement therapy, smoking, alcohol consumption, 7
Caroline 2019 [37] America CRC Cohort Frequency questionnaire
68 food items
112,149 (1742) Man 9.2 vs 174
g/day
Woman 11 vs 168
g/day
0.92 (0.79, 1.08) Age, sex, total energy intake, body mass index, smoking status, physical activity, hormone replacement therapy use, total calcium red and processed meat, 8
Xiaosheng 2019 [38] America CRC Cohort Frequencyquestionnaire 138,773 (3178) Men 4.00 vs 58.3
Women 3.18 vs 39.1
g/day
Men
0.73 (0.55,0.96)
Women
1.08 (0.84,1.38)
Age, family history of colorectal cancer, history of lower gastrointestinal endoscopy, smoking status, body mass index physical activity, alcohol intake, regular aspirin use, regular multivitamin use, calcium intake, vitamin D intake 8
Vecchia 1988 [39] Italy GC Case-control Structured questionnaire 1819 (206) High vs low 0.40(0.16,0.98) Age, geographic area, sex, education 8
Anna 1990 [40] America GC Case-control Structured questionnaire 274 (137) High vs low 0.42(0.24,0.74)   7
Boeing 1991 [41] Poland GC Case-control Frequency questionnaire
43 food items
1482 (741) High vs Low 0.62(0.47,0.82) Age, sex, occupation, education, and residency sex, occupation, education, and residency 7
Boeing 1991 [42] Germany GC Case-control Interviewer administered questionnaire 722 (143) Highest vs Lowest 0.37(0.22,0.62) Age, sex, and hospital 8
Jedrychowski 1992 [43] Poland GC Case-control Structured questionnaire 1482 (741) Highest vs Lowest 0.18(0.07,0.44) Age, sex, education, occupation of the index person and residency 7
Hansson 1993 [44] Sweden GC Case-control Structured questionnaire 1135 (456) High vs Low 0.89(0.79,1.01) Age, gender, SES and consumption
of a food item during adolescence and 20 years prior to interview
7
Sonia 1997 [45] Italy GC Case-control Structured questionnaire 2746 (722) High vs Low 0.63(0.28,1.40) Age, sex, area of residence and education 8
Liliane 1999 [46] Italy GC Case-control Structured questionnaire 6862 (3336) High vs Low 0.5 (0.4,0.7) Age and sex. 7
Marjorie 2001 [47] America GC Cohort Frequency questionnaire 970,045 (1349) > 4 vs < 1
sum of days/week
Man0.90(0.77,1.06)
Woman0.97(0.77,1.24)
Age, education, smoking, BMI, multivitamin and vitamin C use, aspirin use, race, and family history 7
Kasum 2002 [21] America GC Cohort Frequency questionnaire 34,651 (169) 6.9–12.5 vs
13.0–108.5 servings/week
0.61 (0.34,0.81) Age and energy intake 8
Lissowska 2004 [22] Poland GC Case-control Frequency questionnaire 737 (274) High vs Low 1.05(0.65,1.69) Age, sex, education, smoking, and calories from food 7
Levi 2000 [48] Switzerland EC Case-control Frequency questionnaire 450 (101) > 10 vs < 4
times/week
0.3(0.1–0.6) Age, sex, education, smoking habits, and vegetables, fruits, alcohol
and energy intake
7
Honglei 2002 [49] America EC Case-control Health Habits Questionnaire 697 (124) High vs Low 0.25 (0.12, 0.52) Age, sex, energy intake, respondent type, BMI, alcohol use, tobacco use, education, family history 8
Kasum 2002 [21] America EC Cohort Frequency questionnaire 34,651 (169) > 21 vs < 3
servings/week
0.53(0.34–0.81) Age, pack-years of smoking, alcohol use and energy intake. 8
Mahsa 2012 [50] Iran ESCC Case-control Frequency questionnaire 153 (47) 0.25 vs 0.03
Serving/day
0.57(0.28–0.76) Age, sex, total energy intake, gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms, medication use, BMI, smoking, physical activity 9
Sewram 2014 [51] South Africa EC Case-control Structured questionnaire 1858 (670) > 5 vs > 1 per week Men0.66(0.40–1.10)
Woman0.78(0.45,1.34)
Age, hospital, residence, and years of education. 7
Skeie 2016 [52] Norway, EC Cohort Frequency questionnaire 113,933 (112) > 160 vs < 62 g/day 0.55 (0.31–0.97) Age, sex, education, smoking 7
  1. Abbreviations:RR Relative risk, CI Confidence interval, ORs Odds ratios, CRC Colorectal cancer, GC Gastric Cancer, EC Esophageal, ESCC Esophageal Squamous Cell Cance