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Table 1 General study characteristics of the included studies investigating the association between adherence to DASH dirt and risk of all-cause mortality and specific mortality

From: Adherence to the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

Author name, publication yearStudy name, countryFollow-up duration
(year)
Mortality endpoints (Num)Diet assessment method, item, assessment timeDASH dietary pattern score range/ component (score range)Covariates
Folsom 2007 [37]Iowa Women s Health Study, USA16CVD (1121)Validated FFQ1, 127, baseline11 components: Total grains, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, total dairy, total meats, nuts, seeds and dry beans, sweets, sodium, total fats, saturated fatty acids. (8–40)Age, energy intake, education, BMI, waist/hip, smoking status and pack-years, estrogen use, alcohol intake, physical activity, and multivitamin use
Stroke (236)
George 2014 [22]Women’s Health Initiative Study, USA12.9CVD (1483)
Cancer (2384)
Validated FFQ, 122, baseline8 components: fruit, vegetables, nuts and legumes, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, sodium, red and processed meats and sweetened beverages (8–40)Age, race/ethnicity, educational level, marital status, smoking, physical activity, daily energy intake, postmenopausal hormone therapy, diabetes, BMI, and alcohol
Yu 2014 [34]Shanghai Men’s Health Study, China6.5All-cause (4348)Validated FFQ, 81, baseline7 components: vegetables; fruits; dairy; meat, poultry, fish, and eggs; nuts, seeds, and legumes; fats and oils; and sodium. (0–70)Age, Educational Attainment, Income, Cigarette smoking, Alcohol consumption, Physical activity, multivitamin supplement; BMI, Waist-to-hip ratio; History of CVD, Diabetes, or Hypertension; and Total energy intake.
CVD (1344)
Cancer (1836)
Shanghai Women’s Health Study, China12All-cause (2954)FFQ, 77, baseline
CVD (964)
Cancer (1290)
Reedy 2014 [38]NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, USA15All-cause (54871)Validated FFQ, 124, baseline8 components: fruit, vegetables, nuts and legumes, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, sodium, red and processed meats, and sweetened beverages. (8–40)Age, ethnicity, education, BMI, smoking, vigorous physical activity, energy intake, marital status, Diabetes, and alcohol
CVD (15497)
Cancer (18646)
Cuenca-García 2014 [36]Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, USA11.6All-cause (358)3-day diet record, baseline8 components: fruits and vegetables, fish, whole grains, nuts/seeds and legumes, sodium, added sugar, processed meat, and saturated fat. (0–8)Age, sex, energy intake, examination
year, smoking, alcohol, abnormal resting or exercise electrocardiogram, parental history of premature CVD, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness
CVD (102)
Cancer (134)
Boggs 2015 [39]Black Women s Health Study, USA16All-cause (1678)Validated FFQ, 98, baseline and every 2 year8 components: fruits (including fruit juice), vegetables, nuts and legumes, whole grains, and low-fat dairy, sodium, red and processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages. (8–40)Age, total energy intake, education, marital status, vigorous exercise, television watching, smoking, BMI, and alcohol
CVD (428)
Cancer (742)
Harmon 2015 [23]Multiethnic Cohort Study, USA13–18All-cause (18263)Validated FFQ, 182, baseline8 components: fruit, vegetables, nuts and legumes, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, sodium, red and processed meats, and sweetened beverages. (8–40)Age, energy intake, history of diabetes, ethnicity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, smoking, education, marital status, hormone-replacement therapy, BMI, and alcohol
CVD (6408)
Cancer (5853)
Lassale 2016 [40]Pan-EPIC, Europe12.8All-cause (15200)Validated FFQ, baseline8 components: fruit, vegetables, nuts and legumes, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, sodium, red and processed meats, and sweetened beverages. (8–40)Age, sex, BMI, smoking status, physical activity level and educational level
CVD (3761)
Cancer (7475)
Park 2016 [41]Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey18.6All-cause (296)A single 24-h dietary recall, baseline9 components: fruits, vegetables, nuts and legumes, low-fat dairy products, whole grains, fat (total/saturated), sodium, sweets, and red meats. (0–9)Age, sex, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, income, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and total energy intake
CVD (67)
Cancer (79)
Biesbroek 2017 [42]EPIC-NL, Netherland19.2All-cause (3845)Validated FFQ, 178, baseline8 components: fruit, vegetables, nuts and legumes, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, sodium, red and processed meats, and sweetened beverages. (8–40)Age, BMI, educational level, smoking status, total energy intake, physical activity and alcohol consumption
Zaslavsky 2017 [33]Women s Health Initiative Study, USA12.4All-cause (3259)Validate FFQ, 122, baseline and 3 year after baseline8 components: fruit, vegetables, nuts and legumes, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, sodium, red and processed meats, and sweetened beverages. (8–40)Age, energy and protein intake, race/ethnicity, education, income, smoking, number of frailty criteria, physical activity, and BMI
Jones 2018 [43]EPI C-Norfo lk cohor t study, Britania12.4All-cause (6567)Validated FFQ, 130, baseline8 components: fruit, vegetables, nuts and legumes, whole grains, low-fat dairy, red and processed meats, salt, and non-milk extrinsic sugars. (8–40)Age, sex and dietary energy, smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity, BMI, diabetes, SES, marital status, use of antihypertensive medication, use of lipid-lowering medication and history of CVD
CVD (1647)
Aigner 2018 [44]Multiethnic Cohort Study, USA17.6Stroke (3548)Validated FFQ, 180, baseline8 components: fruit, vegetables, nuts and legumes, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, sodium, red and processed meats, and sweetened beverages. (8–40)Age, energy intake, history of diabetes, ethnicity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, smoking, education, marital status, hormone-replacement therapy, BMI, and alcohol
  1. 1Food frequency questionnaire