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Table 4 Probit estimates of the impact of gender on the adoption of fortified foods

From: The impact of food fortification on stunting in Zimbabwe: does gender of the household head matter?

 Proxy of Food Fortification Adoption:
Ever heard about Fortified foods [1 if Yes, 0 if No]Able to identify fortified foods on the market [1 if Yes, 0 if No]Purchased any fortified food product in the past 30 days [1 if Yes, 0 if No]Fed child (6–23 months) meals with micronutrient powders in the past 30 days [1 if Yes, 0 if No]Ever heard about Bio fortified Crops [1 if Yes, 0 if No]
(I)(II)(III)(IV)(V)
Household head is female0.00764−0.001070.001100.00892b0.00830c
(0.00678)(0.00778)(0.00650)(0.00445)(0.00447)
Household head age [Years]0.000349b0.0003250.000557a−4.20e-050.000617a
(0.000169)(0.000203)(0.000166)(0.000104)(0.000103)
Married−0.0185− 0.0272− 0.0554b− 0.01110.0120
(0.0204)(0.0271)(0.0217)(0.0145)(0.0134)
Living with partner−0.00669− 0.0324− 0.0170− 0.0166− 0.00523
(0.0222)(0.0267)(0.0193)(0.0109)(0.0166)
Divorced/Separated−0.0379b0.00301−0.0334b−0.01370.00533
(0.0163)(0.0278)(0.0154)(0.0104)(0.0178)
Widow/Widower−0.0131−0.0197− 0.0337b− 0.0177c− 0.00332
(0.0188)(0.0247)(0.0154)(0.00979)(0.0151)
Primary level0.01230.0167c0.0501a0.001290.0135b
(0.00757)(0.00919)(0.00842)(0.00487)(0.00525)
ZJC0.0546a0.0754a0.0949a0.0180b0.0332a
(0.0117)(0.0135)(0.0137)(0.00746)(0.00896)
O′ level0.0770a0.0715a0.111a0.0162a0.0379a
(0.00916)(0.0105)(0.0102)(0.00564)(0.00647)
A’ level0.120a0.111a0.169a0.01700.0502a
(0.0251)(0.0265)(0.0282)(0.0131)(0.0183)
Diploma/Certificate after primary0.270a0.174a0.299a0.0615c0.110b
(0.0589)(0.0587)(0.0610)(0.0350)(0.0442)
Diploma/Certificate after secondary0.329a0.309a0.379a0.0674a0.118a
(0.0306)(0.0319)(0.0318)(0.0201)(0.0250)
Graduate/Post-Graduate0.353a0.300a0.413a0.0991a0.201a
(0.0395)(0.0410)(0.0400)(0.0280)(0.0372)
Household size0.00387a0.00488a0.00337a0.00140c0.00170b
(0.00116)(0.00145)(0.00116)(0.000782)(0.000729)
Proportion of economically active household members0.0299a0.103a0.0625a0.0291a0.0231a
(0.00867)(0.0104)(0.00855)(0.00557)(0.00548)
Number of chronically ill household members0.00739c−0.00165−0.002290.0110a0.00181
(0.00448)(0.00546)(0.00457)(0.00251)(0.00292)
Number of mentally ill household members− 0.009720.00388− 0.005480.00597c− 0.00404
(0.00642)(0.00719)(0.00614)(0.00357)(0.00392)
Number of children with sick mothers in the household−0.01680.00997−0.0262b− 0.00904− 0.0117
(0.0119)(0.0130)(0.0122)(0.00735)(0.00766)
Number of children with sick fathers in the household0.004060.02330.004450.008330.00238
(0.0132)(0.0144)(0.0123)(0.00702)(0.00771)
Household is located in rural areas0.0351a0.004450.0336a0.001770.0180a
(0.0116)(0.0158)(0.0114)(0.00811)(0.00689)
Bulawayo−0.0896a−0.154a−0.0822a− 0.0433a− 0.0409a
(0.00757)(0.00364)(0.00725)(0.00155)(0.00283)
Manicaland−0.0201−0.0723a− 0.0441a−0.0109− 0.0155c
(0.0161)(0.0146)(0.0130)(0.00824)(0.00882)
Mash Central−0.0267c−0.104a− 0.0560a−0.0318a0.00306
(0.0158)(0.0126)(0.0122)(0.00528)(0.0120)
Mash East−0.01940.0381c0.00932−0.0320a−0.0267a
(0.0162)(0.0223)(0.0182)(0.00544)(0.00723)
Mash West−0.0460a−0.0210− 0.0449a−0.0348a− 0.0350a
(0.0136)(0.0184)(0.0130)(0.00473)(0.00558)
Mat North0.0348c−0.0779a−0.0115− 0.0328a−0.0400a
(0.0207)(0.0147)(0.0164)(0.00522)(0.00503)
Mat South−0.0376b−0.118a− 0.0465a−0.0416a− 0.0402a
(0.0148)(0.0112)(0.0131)(0.00376)(0.00470)
Midlands−0.0663a−0.141a− 0.0745a−0.0346a− 0.0204b
(0.0120)(0.00950)(0.0104)(0.00504)(0.00818)
Masvingo−0.0588a−0.0290− 0.0473a−0.0310a− 0.0459a
(0.0126)(0.0181)(0.0129)(0.00548)(0.00436)
Observations24,73022,70124,40724,17624,790
Pseudo R20.03990.07120.04540.04300.0577
  1. Notes: Sample size is 25,297. Robust standard errors in parentheses. a, b, and c indicate the 1, 5, and 10% levels of significance