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Table 1 Background characteristics of households by treatment status

From: The impact of food fortification on stunting in Zimbabwe: does gender of the household head matter?

VariableAdopted Food FortificationDifference in means
[Y – N]
Yes [Y]No [N]
MeanSDMeanSD
Observations (%)3038(12%)22,259(88%) 
Household head is female0.2460.430.2650.441−0.019b
Household head age [Years]42.32914.91242.26615.6370.063
Marital status of household head
 Married0.8110.3920.7910.4070.020a
 Living with partner0.0220.1460.0210.1420.001
 Divorced/separated0.0340.180.0470.212−0.014a
 Widow/Widower0.120.3250.1290.335−0.009
 Never married/never lived with a partner0.0140.1160.0120.1110.001
Education level of household head
 None0.0890.2850.1230.328−0.034a
 Primary level0.3110.4630.4060.491−0.095a
 ZJC level0.1080.310.0980.2970.010c
 O′ level0.3960.4890.3360.4720.060a
 A’ level0.0230.1510.0170.1310.006b
 Diploma/Certificate after primary0.0080.0910.0030.0510.006a
 Diploma/Certificate after secondary0.0410.1970.0120.1070.029a
 Graduate/Post-Graduate0.0240.1520.0060.0780.018a
Household characteristics
 Household size (number of members)4.7791.9314.6971.9340.083b
 Proportion of economically active household members0.4470.2460.4240.2490.023a
 Number of chronically ill household members0.1550.4760.1460.4580.009
 Number of mentally ill household members0.0840.3230.0910.34−0.008
 Number of children with sick mothers in the household0.0210.1650.0280.196−0.007b
 Number of children with sick fathers in the household0.0160.1510.0180.161−0.001
 Household is located in rural areas0.9270.260.9250.2640.002
Province
 Bulawayo0.0060.0790.0180.132−0.011a
 Manicaland0.1240.3290.1010.3010.023a
 Mash Central0.1180.3220.1180.3220
 Mash East0.1520.3590.1260.3320.025a
 Mash West0.10.30.1170.322−0.018a
 Mat North0.1840.3880.1090.3120.075a
 Mat South0.0880.2830.1020.303−0.015a
 Midlands0.0870.2820.140.347−0.053a
 Masvingo0.0950.2930.1320.339−0.037a
 Harare0.0470.2110.0360.1870.011a
  1. Notes
  2. Sample size of 25,297 is the actual number of households with children under 5 years
  3. The fifth column shows the results of two-tailed t-test for the difference in the means. a, b, and c indicate the 1, 5, and 10% levels of significance, the assumption is that the sub-samples have an unequal variance
  4. The data are expressed as proportions unless otherwise stated