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Table 1 Socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics by gender

From: Cooking frequency and hypertension with gender as a modifier

  Women (N = 302,632)* Men (N = 210,259)*
Daily Cooking
n = 254,198
Weekly or Monthly Cooking
n = 29,263
Never Cooking
n = 19,171
Daily Cooking
n = 47,091
Weekly or Monthly Cooking
n = 51,172
Never Cooking
n = 111,996
Age, years (SD) 51.27 (10.33) 49.71 (10.79) 48.81 (11.50) 52.18 (10.96) 51.53 (10.68) 53.64 (10.90)
Urban, % 41.36 66.32 53.65 58.70 56.31 31.16
Highest level of education, %
 Primary school and below 58.61 47.10 46.28 38.91 38.48 45.33
 Middle/high school 37.77 44.69 43.95 51.42 51.92 48.33
 College and above 3.61 8.20 9.76 9.66 9.60 6.34
Household income, %
  < 5000 yuan 11.24 4.25 4.87 12.05 6.08 9.53
 5000–19,999 yuan 51.52 37.45 35.81 42.25 38.74 49.23
  ≥ 20,000 yuan 37.24 58.30 59.32 45.70 55.18 41.24
Marital status, %
 Married 88.13 90.47 88.87 83.85 95.32 95.60
 Other 11.87 9.53 11.13 16.15 4.68 4.40
Occupation, %
 Agriculture and related 44.61 20.04 18.10 30.45 33.60 53.35
 Factory workers 8.03 23.21 25.88 23.90 25.42 14.26
 Clerk 7.30 17.15 18.30 12.36 14.59 10.60
 Self employed 1.70 3.80 5.86 2.39 3.79 3.85
 Unemployed 38.36 35.80 31.86 30.90 22.60 17.94
Self-rated health, %
 Excellent 15.66 15.79 20.77 21.61 19.75 19.42
 Good 27.09 29.01 28.33 27.22 28.80 30.30
 Fair 45.85 45.07 38.36 41.36 43.67 41.22
 Poor 11.40 10.13 12.54 9.80 7.78 9.06
Hypertension, % 33.04 28.60 29.79 39.88 35.99 35.03
MET, hours/day (SD) 20.09 (12.28) 22.26 (14.35) 21.99 (15.67) 21.02 (13.97) 23.00 (15.06) 22.00 (15.88)
BMI, kg/m2 (SD) 23.86 (3.47) 23.54 (3.36) 23.60 (3.47) 23.69 (3.34) 23.63 (3.24) 23.23 (3.20)
Smoking, %
 Never 94.85 95.92 94.53 16.58 13.60 13.89
 Occasional 2.71 2.35 3.09 26.50 26.00 23.00
 Regular 2.44 1.73 2.38 56.92 60.40 63.11
Alcohol, %
 Never 63.56 66.47 66.38 22.70 21.60 25.87
 Occasional 34.01 30.92 30.27 34.97 36.91 39.21
 Regular 2.43 2.61 3.35 42.33 41.49 34.92
Household have chimney, % 83.97 82.90 75.33 77.81 79.35 73.11
Stove kept slow-burning throughout the day, %
 Always 31.29 11.35 14.77 21.98 21.43 36.00
 Sometimes 14.92 7.18 6.05 8.42 10.50 16.75
 No 53.79 81.47 79.18 69.60 68.07 47.25
  1. *All baseline characteristics differed significantly among men/women with different cooking frequencies (p values < 0.001)