Skip to main content

Table 1 Sample characteristics of participants, stratified by sex and birth cohorts

From: Time trends in nutrient intake and dietary patterns among five birth cohorts of 70-year-olds examined 1971–2016: results from the Gothenburg H70 birth cohort studies, Sweden

Birth cohort1901–02 (n = 370)1911–12 (n = 262)1922 (n = 199)1930 (n = 554)1944 (n = 861) 
Examination years1971–721981–831992–932000–022014–16 
Women total n188130136321474Linear trend
BMI* (kg/m2)     P value
Mean ± (SD)26,1 (4,2)27,1 (4,6)26,1 (4,3)27,1 (4,5)25,6 (5,0)0.084
 % (no. of cases/total cases)% (no. of cases/total cases)% (no. of cases/total cases)% (no. of cases/total cases)% (no. of cases/total cases)χ2
P value
Living situation
 Institutionalized4 (7/188)0 (0/130)2 (3/136)1 (2/317)1 (6/465)0.029
Physical activity level
 Sedentary lifestyle20 (38/187)31 (39/128)22 (30/136)8 (25/314)3 (14/467)< 0.0001
Smoking
 Current smoker12 (22/188)12 (16/130)24 (32/135)15 (48/316)9 (41/471)0.0001
Educational level
  ≤ Primary school84 (157/186)78 (101/129)62 (80/129)64 (202/317)11 (50/469)< 0.0001
Marital status
 Married47 (88/188)52 (68/130)51 (69/136)50 (158/317)60 (280/467)0.009
Men total n18213263233387Linear trend
BMI* (kg/m2)     P value
Mean ± (SD)25,5 (3,3)25,8 (3,6)26,9 (3,9)26,9 (3,9)26,2(4,0)0.012
 % (no. of cases/total cases)% (no. of cases/total cases)% (no. of cases/total cases)% (no. of cases/total cases)% (no. of cases/total cases)χ2
P value
Living situation
 Institutionalized2 (3/182)0 (0/132)3 (2/63)0 (0/232)2 (6/386)0.102
Physical activity level
 Sedentary lifestyle12 (21/182)15 (20/130)18 (11/63)10 (22/226)3 (10/381)< 0.0001
Smoking
 Current smoker46 (84/182)33 (43/132)25 (16/63)14 (33/229)7 (26/387)< 0.0001
Education
  ≤ Primary school81 (147/181)71 (94/130)53 (18/34)57 (132/231)15 (59/382)< 0.0001
Marital status
 Married79 (142/181)76 (100/132)68 (43/63)74 (173/232)81 (310/382)0.112
  1. *There were missing body mass index (BMI) data for four men in 1992–93 and one in 2000–02, among women, there were missing BMI data for one individual in 1981–83, six in 1992–93, three in 2000–02 and two in 2014–16