Skip to main content

Table 3 Multivariate logistic analysis of the association of low birthweight with childhood underweight while controlling for several covariates

From: Association of low birth weight with undernutrition in preschool-aged children in Malawi

Variables Model I Model II Model III Model IV Model V Model VI Model VII
COR 95% (CI) aOR 95% (CI) aOR 95% (CI) aOR 95% (CI) aOR 95% (CI) aOR 95% (CI) aOR 95% (CI)
Birth weight
 Low birthweighta 2.30 (1.68–3.14)* 2.28 (1.65–3.14)* 2.29 (1.65–3.16)* 2.15 (1.56–2.99)* 2.15 (1.55–2.98)* 2.15 (1.56–2.99)* 2.16 (1.56–2.99)*
 Normal and above 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Sex of the child
 Male   1.23 (0.99–1.52) 1.22 (0.98–1.52) 1.21 (0.97–1.51) 1.22 (0.98–1.53) 1.22 (0.98–1.53) 1.22 (0.98–1.53)
 Female   1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Age
 6–11   0.79 (0.52–1.19) 0.74 (0.48–1.16) 0.70 (0.44–1.11) 0.69 (0.43–1.10) 0.68 (0.43–1.09) 0.68 (0.43–1.10)
 12–23   0.98 (0.69–1.41) 0.93 (0.65–1.34) 0.88 (0.61–1.28) 0.88 (0.61–1.27) 0.88 (0.61–1.28) 0.88 (0.61–1.28)
 24–35   0.98 (0.68–1.42) 0.96 (0.66–1.39) 0.88 (0.62–1.29) 0.88 (0.60–1.28) 0.88 (0.61–1.29) 0.88 (0.60–1.28)
 36–47   1.24 (0.87–1.78) 1.23 (0.86–1.77) 1.19 (0.83–1.72) 1.20 (0.83–1.73) 1.20 (0.83–1.72) 1.19 (0.83–1.72)
 48–59   1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Multiple births
 Single births   0.88 (0.41–1.90) 0.89 (0.41–1.92) 0.85 (0.40–1.83) 0.89 (0.42–1.90) 0.89 (0.42–1.90) 0.88 (0.41–1.90)
 Twins   1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Preceding birth interval
  < 24   1.20 (0.87–1.65) 1.20 (0.87–1.64) 1.11 (0.73–1.67) 1.10 (0.73–1.66) 1.10 (0.73–1.66) 1.11 (0.74–1.66)
 24–47   1.15 (0.85–1.57) 1.15 (0.85–1.57) 1.06 (0.75–1.51) 1.06 (0.74–1.50) 1.05 (0.74–1.50) 1.06 (0.75–1.50)
 48+   1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Recent diarrheab
 No    0.86 (0.63–1.16) 0.84 (0.61–1.14) 0.83 (0.61–1.13) 0.83 (0.61–1.13) 0.83 (0.61–1.13)
 Yes    1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Recent feverc
 No    1.00 (0.78–1.28) 0.99 (0.77–1.29) 0.99 (0.76–1.29) 0.99 (0.76–1.29) 0.99 (0.76–1.29)
 Yes    1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Maternal age
 15–19     0.64 (0.33–1.26) 0.62 (0.32–1.22) 0.62 (0.31–1.22) 0.61 (0.31–1.21)
 20–24     1.01 (0.68–1.52) 1.00 (0.67–1.49) 1.00 (0.66–1.49) 0.98 (0.66–1.47)
 25–29     0.74 (0.49–1.13) 0.73 (0.48–1.11) 0.73 (0.48–1.12) 0.73 (0.48–1.11)
 30–34     0.82 (0.54–1.27) 0.82 (0.53–1.25) 0.82 (0.53–1.27) 0.82 (0.53–1.26)
 35–49     1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Maternal education levels
 No education     1.16 (0.73–1.84) 1.13 (0.71–1.80) 1.13 (0.71–1.80) 1.10 (0.70–1.74)
 Primary     0.98 (0.66–1.45) 0.97 (0.65–1.45) 0.96 (0.65–1.45) 0.95 (0.64–1.41)
 Secondary and above     1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Maternal body mass indexd
 Underweight     3.40 (1.93–5.97)* 3.55 (2.03–6.20)* 3.52 (2.01–6.14)* 3.52 (2.02–6.13)*
 Optimal weight     1.54 (1.03–2.32)* 1.57 (1.05–2.34)* 1.57 (1.05–2.35)* 1.56 (1.04–2.34)*
 Overweight/obesity     1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Wealth index
 Poorest     1.74 (1.00–3.03)* 1.76 (1.01–3.07)* 1.77 (1.01–3.14)* 1.76 (0.95–3.24)
 Poorer     1.47 (0.84–2.55) 1.46 (0.83–2.56) 1.48 (0.83–2.63) 1.46 (0.79–2.71)
 Middle     1.37 (0.76–2.47) 1.35 (0.75–2.45) 1.36 (0.75–2.48) 1.34 (0.70–2.55)
 Richer     1.17 (0.64–2.12) 1.17 (0.65–2.14) 1.19 (0.65–2.18) 1.17 (0.62–2.20)
 Richest     1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
No of under-5-year children
  ≤ 1     0.57 (0.38–0.91)* 0.58 (0.38–0.90)* 0.59 (0.38–0.90)* 0.59 (0.38–0.90)*
 2–3     0.51 (0.34–0.77)* 0.51 (0.34–0.76)* 0.51 (0.34–0.76)* 0.51 (0.34–0.76)*
  ≥ 4     1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Amount of media exposuree
 0     3.02 (0.81–11.27) 3.08 (0.82–11.58) 3.14 (0.84–11.81) 3.17 (0.84–11.92)
 1     2.73 (0.72–10.30) 2.76 (0.73–10.51) 2.81 (0.74–10.69) 2.89 (0.76–11.00)
 2     1.39 (0.33–5.08) 1.43 (0.34–6.07) 1.45 (0.35–6.01) 1.47 (0.35–6.18)
 3     1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Source of drinking water
 Unimproved      1.31 (0.97–1.77) 1.31 (0.97–1.77) 1.31 (0.97–1.78)
 Improvedf      1.00 1.00 1.00
Sanitation facility        
 Unimproved      0.77 (0.56–1.05) 0.77 (0.56–1.05) 0.76 (0.55–1.04)
 Improvedg      1.00 1.00 1.00
Place of delivery
 Home and other       1.12 (0.76–1.66) 1.13 (0.77–1.67)
 Hospital/institutionh       1.00 1.00
Perceived distance to health facility       
 Perceived problem       1.78 (0.84–1.39) 1.08 (0.84–1.39)
 Not perceived problem       1.00 1.00
Place of residence
 Urban        0.94 (0.51–1.72)
 Rural        1.00
Geographical region
 Northern        0.88 (0.60–1.30)
 Central        0.87 (0.68–1.12)
 Southern        1.00
  1. *P < 0.05; aProportion of births with a reported birth weight < 2500 g regardless of gestational age; b passage of three or more loose or liquid stools during a 24-h period; cself-reports by mothers about symptoms that had occurred within 2 weeks prior to the survey; d weight in kilograms divided by the square of his height in meters (kg/m2); efrequency of reading newspaper or magazine, frequency of listening to radio, frequency of watching television.; fimproved drinking water (piped water into dwelling, piped water to yard/plot, public tap or standpipe, tubewell or borehole, protected dug well, protected spring and rainwater); gimproved sanitation (flush toilet, piped sewer system, septic tank, flush/pour flush to pit latrine, ventilated improved pit latrine, pit latrine with slab, and composting toilet); hgovernment hospital, government health center, government health post/outreach, other public sector, private hospital/clinic, CHAM/MISSION hospital, CHAM/MISSION health Center, BLM, other private medical sector