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Table 2 Regression coefficients (95% CI) for cognitive function by quartiles of iron related dietary pattern among Chinese adults aged ≥55 years old attending China Health and Nutrition Survey (N = 4852) between 1997 and 2006

From: Iron-related dietary pattern increases the risk of poor cognition

  Dietary pattern quartiles  
Q1 (low intake) Q2 Q3 Q4 (high intake) p for trend
Global cognitive function Coef. (95% CI)  
 Model 1a 0.00 −0.06 (−0.42–0.30) −0.53 (−0.92--0.15) −1.23 (−1.65--0.81) < 0.001
 Model 2b 0.00 0.00 (− 0.39–0.38) − 0.32 (− 0.73–0.08) − 0.74 (−1.19--0.28) < 0.001
 Model 3c 0.00 − 0.11 (− 0.50–0.28) − 0.42 (− 0.84–0.00) − 0.79 (− 1.25--0.32) < 0.001
Model 3+ carbohydrate (quartiles) 0.00 0.15 (− 0.26–0.55) 0.05 (− 0.40–0.50) − 0.19 (− 0.70–0.32) 0.373
Model 3 + lead (quartiles) 0.00 −0.01 (− 0.45–0.42) −0.24 (− 0.74–0.27) −0.57 (− 1.16–0.02) 0.035
Model 3 + iron (quartiles) 0.00 0.05 (−0.37–0.47) −0.16 (− 0.63–0.31) −0.41 (− 0.95–0.13) 0.080
Sensitivity analysis d 0.00 0.01 (− 0.36–0.38) −0.30 (− 0.69–0.09) −0.52 (− 0.96--0.09) 0.006
Verbal memory score
 Model 1a 0.00 −0.13 (− 0.38–0.13) −0.44 (− 0.71--0.17) −0.71 (− 1.00--0.41) < 0.001
 Model 2b 0.00 −0.09 (− 0.37–0.18) −0.25 (− 0.55–0.04) −0.33 (− 0.66--0.01) 0.026
 Model 3c 0.00 −0.15 (− 0.43–0.13) −0.31 (− 0.61--0.02) −0.37 (− 0.70--0.04) 0.020
Model 3+ carbohydrate (quartiles) 0.00 0.01 (−0.29–0.30) − 0.07 (− 0.39–0.26) −0.10 (− 0.47–0.26) 0.509
Model 3 + lead (quartiles) 0.00 −0.09 (− 0.41–0.22) −0.17 (− 0.54–0.19) −0.19 (− 0.61–0.24) 0.376
Model 3 + iron (quartiles) 0.00 −0.01 (− 0.31–0.29) −0.09 (− 0.42–0.25) −0.06 (− 0.45–0.33) 0.688
Sensitivity analysisd 0.00 −0.10 (− 0.38–0.17) −0.23 (− 0.52–0.06) −0.22 (− 0.55–0.10) 0.131
  1. Regression coefficients and 95% CI were estimated with mixed effect regression models with different levels of adjustment
  2. a Model 1 adjusted for age, gender and energy intake
  3. b Model 2 further adjusted for intake of fat, smoking, alcohol drinking, income, urbanicity, education, and physical activity
  4. c Model 3 further adjusted for BMI and hypertension
  5. d Sensitivity analysis model 3 further adjusted for diabetes and stroke after excluding those with a global cognitive function score ≤ 4
  6. All the adjusted variables are treated as time-varying covariates. Bold font represents p<0.05