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Table 4 Mean (standard deviation) food contents in the observed diets (i.e. mean observed diet) and in diets optimized with cost-constrained and cost-free models at three levels of acceptability constraintsa (n = 89 GSb)

From: Planning dietary improvements without additional costs for low-income individuals in Brazil: linear programming optimization as a tool for public policy in nutrition and health

Foods / food groups (grams/day) Observed diet Rigorous Moderate Flexible
Cost constrained Cost free Cost constrained Cost free Cost constrained Cost free
FV, legumes, seeds
 Leafy vegetables 3.3 (4.2) 7.5 (6.9) 8.1 (7.6) 7.3 (7.0) 9.6 (8.5) 12.1 (11.8) 13.9 (13.1)
 Other vegetables 112.9 (77.7) 117.8 (73.1) 206.8 (85.1) 116.9 (71.2) 252.2 (103.3) 138.1 (80.7) 213.4 (120.1)
 Tuber 22.3 (15.7) 34.3 (11.7) 34.0 (11.8) 34.0 (11.7) 37.2 (14.4) 38.2 (23.9) 39.8 (22.8)
 Fruits 69.1 (30.0) 105.2 (29.3) 122.3 (33.7) 102.1 (29) 142.1 (35.8) 172.5 (58.8) 171.7 (55.7)
 Beans 183.4 (71.9) 224.5 (40.2) 223.7 (42.8) 224.3 (40.3) 242.1 (43) 291.4 (30.4) 290.7 (34.3)
 Nuts 0.1 (0.3) 0.6 (0.4) 0.6 (0.5) 0.5 (0.4) 0.7 (0.6) 2.5 (1.8) 2.1 (1.7)
Cereals
 Rice 161.2 (55.6) 117 (46.4) 94.3 (31.9) 114.2 (48.1) 84.1 (15.4) 92.6 (28.5) 86.4 (19.7)
 Whole cereals 8.4 (12.7) 13.5 (13) 9.8 (11.3) 13.6 (12.9) 11.4 (14.3) 29.1 (26.6) 30.7 (26.5)
 Pasta 43.4 (22.2) 53.5 (17.3) 48.8 (17.1) 53.5 (16.9) 43.5 (20.9) 60.1 (25.2) 48.4 (28.9)
 Cake, cookies 27.1 (10.4) 28.8 (10.6) 27.7 (10.7) 26.5 (12.1) 25.8 (13.3) 16.8 (10.2) 18.8 (11.9)
 Breads 53.4 (24.4) 44.4 (20.5) 35.7 (20.1) 43.2 (21.3) 27.3 (17.7) 27.2 (16.7) 23.7 (13.0)
Dairy
 Cheese 3.3 (3.2) 3.8 (3.6) 4.2 (3.5) 4.4 (3.4) 3.7 (4.2) 3.2 (4.3) 3.1 (4.3)
 Yogurt 5.8 (6.2) 9.1 (7.0) 11.8 (7.4) 10.9 (7.5) 13.5 (8.2) 18.0 (13.5) 16.2 (12.6)
 Non-fat milk 4.4 (7.5) 9.3 (7.9) 9.1 (7.9) 9.3 (7.9) 11.4 (8.6) 16.5 (12.6) 17.8 (12.6)
 Milk 74.2 (40.9) 99.7 (33.4) 98.5 (32.0) 104.6 (31.2) 113.1 (38.4) 138.9 (52.6) 149.5 (45.9)
Meats, eggs
 Red meat 78.5 (24.4) 75.3 (24.7) 71.2 (17.7) 69.8 (21.5) 68.7 (16.9) 65.3 (14.9) 65.3 (14.3)
 Chicken 39.4 (13.2) 38.6 (10.8) 40.8 (12.8) 44.8 (10.4) 39.6 (13.9) 48.9 (20) 46.7 (18.7)
 Processed meat 5.7 (4.5) 6.1 (4.3) 4.3 (4.6) 5.9 (4.4) 4.0 (4.8) 7.6 (5.9) 5.9 (5.7)
 Eggs 14.5 (6.9) 16.8 (5.8) 16.9 (5.6) 16.9 (5.6) 19.2 (5.0) 22.3 (6.2) 21.7 (6.7)
 Fish, seafoods 45.5 (62.1) 44.8 (58.6) 66.9 (64.0) 44.5 (59.1) 69.8 (63.6) 36.1 (58.8) 61.5 (69.6)
Oils
 Margarine, butter 6.0 (3.0) 3.8 (2.5) 3.8 (2.7) 4.3 (2.7) 2.9 (2.1) 3.3 (1.9) 3 (2.2)
 Olive 0.02 (0.1) 0.1 (0.1) 0.1 (0.1) 0.1 (0.1) 0.2 (0.1) 0.3 (0.1) 0.3 (0.1)
Other
 SSB c 98.7 (56.0) 54.3 (37.1) 87.0 (60.1) 51.8 (34.3) 88.0 (67.1) 41.0 (16.3) 47.1 (32.1)
 Snacks 51.1 (36.0) 68.5 (38.3) 71.7 (35.7) 68.7 (38.8) 77.2 (35.4) 58.2 (44.3) 59.1 (43.4)
 Sweets 41.7 (39.4) 24.5 (33.1) 26.8 (32.6) 25.2 (33.1) 20.4 (28.1) 14.2 (18.5) 15.3 (20.0)
 Manioc flour 16.5 (26.9) 22.0 (27.1) 16.5 (22.7) 21.6 (26.9) 15.0 (20.8) 20.9 (22.4) 15.2 (18.8)
 Mean observed cost (US$) 2.16 (0.37) 2.16 (0.37) 2.70 (0.41) 2.16 (0.37) 2.90 (0.48) 2.16 (0.37) 2.60 (0.69)
  1. a The acceptability constraints reflect the flexibility in the modifications allowed in the optimized models from the usual food patterns. The rigorous constraints allow a smaller deviation from the usual intake than the moderate one, and this, a smaller than the flexible one
  2. b The unit of analysis were the 89 geographic-strata; which comprise 16,962 individuals
  3. c Sugar-sweetened beverage