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Table 1 HEI-2015 Scores for Young Adults (18–39 years) by Food Source Group, CSFII 1989–1991 and NHANES 2011–2014a

From: Improvements in the nutritional quality of US young adults based on food sources and socioeconomic status between 1989–1991 and 2011–2014

  CSFII 1989–1991 NHANES 2011–2014
HEI Components (95% Confidence Interval) At Homeb (n = 2255) Restaurantb (n = 385) Fast Foodb (n = 1355) Mixed Sourcesb (n = 222) Overall Sourcesb Change in At Home (n = 971) Change in Restaurant (n = 408) Change in Fast Food (n = 1793) Change in Mixed Sources (n = 623) Change in Overall Sources
Total Fruits 2.7 2.7 2.1c 1.8c 2.4 0.5d 0.7 0.0c 0.4c 0.1
 maximum score: 5 (2.4, 3.0) (2.2, 3.2) (1.9, 2.4) (1.4, 2.2) (2.2, 2.6) (3.0, 3.4) (2.6, 4.2) (1.9, 2.3) (1.9, 2.6) (2.4, 2.7)
Whole Fruits 3.0 2.7 2.0c 1.4c 2.5 1.5d 1.8d 0.5c, d 1.5c, d 0.8d
 maximum score: 5 (2.5, 3.4) (2.0, 3.4) (1.8, 2.3) (0.9, 1.8) (2.2, 2.7) (4.0, 5.0) (3.4, 5.0) (2.3, 2.8) (2.2, 3.5) (3.0, 3.5)
Total Vegetables 3.2 3.9c 3.1 3.6 3.3 −0.3d −0.5c, d − 0.6c, d −0.6d − 0.5d
 maximum score: 5 (3.1, 3.4) (3.7, 4.2) (2.9, 3.3) (3.3, 4.0) (3.2, 3.4) (2.7, 3.1) (3.1, 3.7) (2.4, 2.7) (2.8, 3.3) (2.7, 2.9)
Greens & Beans 2.3 1.5 1.5c 1.9 1.9 2.1d 2.0c, d 0.6c, d 1.1c, d 1.1d
 maximum score: 5 (1.9, 2.7) (0.9, 2.0) (1.2, 1.8) (1.3, 2.5) (1.6, 2.1) (3.9, 5.0) (3.0, 3.9) (1.8, 2.3) (2.5, 3.5) (2.7, 3.2)
Whole Grains 2.2 1.3c 1.6c 1.5c 1.8 1.0d 1.9d 0.5c, d 0.4c 0.6d
 maximum score: 10 (1.9, 2.5) (1.0, 1.6) (1.3, 1.9) (1.0, 1.9) (1.6, 2.0) (2.8, 3.6) (2.5, 4.0) (1.9, 2.4) (1.5, 2.3) (2.2, 2.7)
Dairy 6.6 5.7 6.3 4.8c 6.2 0.1 −0.5c −0.3 1.2d −0.1
 maximum score: 10 (6.1, 7.1) (5.0, 6.5) (5.7, 6.9) (4.2, 5.4) (5.9, 6.6) (6.1, 7.3) (4.7, 5.8) (5.6, 6.4) (5.5, 6.5) (5.8, 6.4)
Total Protein Foods 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
 maximum score: 5 (5.0, 5.0) (5.0, 5.0) (4.9, 5.0) (4.9, 5.0) (5.0, 5.0) (5.0, 5.0) (5.0, 5.0) (5.0, 5.0) (5.0, 5.0) (5.0, 5.0)
Seafood and Plant Proteins 3.0 3.6 2.5 2.6 2.8 1.6d 1.3d 0.4c 1.4d 0.9d
 maximum score: 5 (2.5, 3.5) (3.0, 4.2) (2.1, 3.0) (2.0, 3.1) (2.5, 3.2) (3.8, 5.0) (4.2, 5.0) (2.4, 3.6) (3.2, 5.0) (3.3, 4.2)
Fatty Acids 3.2 2.9 3.0 3.7 3.1 1.2d 2.6c, d 1.5d 1.1d 1.5d
 maximum score: 10 (2.9, 3.6) (2.4, 3.5) (2.5, 3.5) (3.2, 4.4) (2.9, 3.4) (4.0, 4.8) (4.9, 6.2) (4.0, 5.0) (4.4, 5.4) (4.3, 5.0)
Refined Grains 5.4 5.8 4.7 4.6 5.1 0.7d 1.4c, d 0.8d 1.7d 0.8d
 maximum score: 10 (5.2, 5.6) (5.0, 6.5) (4.2, 5.2) (3.5, 5.7) (4.8, 5.5) (5.6, 6.4) (6.5, 7.8) (5.2, 5.8) (5.8, 6.8) (5.7, 6.2)
Sodium 3.8 2.8 3.9 4.7 3.8 0.2 0.1 0.6 −1.0 0.3
 maximum score: 10 (3.4, 4.1) (1.8, 3.8) (3.4, 4.5) (3.8, 5.7) (3.5, 4.1) (3.3, 4.6) (2.3, 3.6) (4.3, 4.8) (3.2, 4.2) (3.8, 4.3)
Added Sugars 7.0 6.9 5.7c 5.8c 6.4 −0.4d 0.2c −0.3c 0.4 −0.4d
 maximum score: 10 (6.8, 7.2) (6.2, 7.6) (5.3, 6.1) (4.8, 6.8) (6.2, 6.6) (6.3, 6.8) (6.8, 7.4) (5.0, 5.7) (5.7, 6.7) (5.8, 6.2)
Saturated Fats 4.7 3.6c 4.0 4.4 4.3 1.3d 3.7c, d 2.2d 1.7d 2.0d
 maximum score: 10 (4.4, 5.1) (2.8, 4.3) (3.4, 4.6) (3.2, 5.6) (3.9, 4.6) (5.5, 6.7) (6.7, 7.7) (5.8, 6.5) (5.6, 6.7) (5.9, 6.5)
Total HEI-2015 Score 52.0 48.4c 45.5c 45.8c 48.7 9.5d 14.6d 5.9c, d 9.4c, d 7.1d
 maximum score: 100 (50.3, 53.8) (46.7, 50.1) (44.1, 47.0) (43.3, 48.5) (47.6, 49.8) (59.0, 63.8) (60.2, 65.6) (49.7, 53.2) (52.8, 57.6) (54.6, 57.0)
  1. aData in this table are nationally weighted and unadjusted
  2. bAt home refers to those who consumed food strictly from at home sources for the 24-h recall period. Restaurant refers to those who ate food from a restaurant and an at home source. Fast food refers to those who ate food from a fast food and an at home source. Mixed sources refers to those who ate food from all three other sources, restaurant, fast food, and at home. Overall sources refers to the entire sample regardless of food source
  3. cSignificantly (P < 0.05) different from the at home food source
  4. d Significantly (P < 0.05) different between 1989 and 1991 and 2011–2014