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Table 3 Nutrients intake and dietary antioxidant capacity of participants according to the four dietary pattern scores

From: Dietary pattern, dietary total antioxidant capacity, and dyslipidemia in Korean adults

  Tertile of pattern scores
Median (25th - 75th percentiles) T1 T2 T3 p-value
Rice & Kimchi
 Energy (Kcal/d) 1880.3 (1444.7–2433.4) 1852.7 (1419.5–2368.7) 1583.8 (1235.4–2007.7) < 0.001
Dietary total antioxidant capacity
 Vitamin C (mg VCE/d) 77.9 (35.1–173.0) 71.5 (36.8–142.0) 49.0 (24.7–92.3) < 0.001
 Retinol (mg VCE/d) 0.0 (0.0–0.1) 0.0 (0.0–0.1) 0.0 (0.0–0.0) < 0.001
 Vitamin E (mg VCE/d) 4.3 (2.8–6.4) 3.9 (2.6–5.9) 3.0 (1.8–4.6) < 0.001
 Carotenoids (mg VCE/d) 1.5 (0.7–3.5) 1.4 (0.7–3.2) 1.0 (0.4–2.3) < 0.001
 Flavonoids (mg VCE/d) 165.3 (71.1–371.9) 163.0 (79.5–319.4) 104.2 (49.8–212.5) < 0.001
 TAC (mg VCE/d) 273.2 (133.0–576.3) 260.6 (137.1–482.8) 169.7 (89.3–318.5) < 0.001
Oil, sweets, fish, & other vegetables
 Energy (Kcal/d) 1647.4 (1272.3–2130.5) 1778.6 (1387.1–2265.7) 1869.5 (1419.9–2406.9) < 0.001
Dietary total antioxidant capacity
 Vitamin C (mg VCE/d) 57.9 (23.3–141.8) 62.6 (32.3–125.1) 70.4 (38.3–128.8) < 0.001
 Retinol (mg VCE/d) 0.0 (0.0–0.0) 0.0 (0.0–0.1) 0.0 (0.0–0.1) < 0.001
 Vitamin E (mg VCE/d) 2.9 (1.8–4.5) 3.6 (2.4–5.3) 4.8 (3.2–6.9) < 0.001
 Carotenoids (mg VCE/d) 0.8 (0.3–2.0) 1.3 (0.6–3.0) 1.8 (0.9–4.0) < 0.001
 Flavonoids (mg VCE/d) 129.9 (51.6–317.4) 142.3 (67.4–296.6) 147.6 (76.8–277.5) < 0.001
 TAC (mg VCE/d) 210.9 (92.5–484.8) 230.0 (120.8–446.6) 241.5 (136.8–426.5) < 0.001
Red meat & alcohol
 Energy (Kcal/d) 1574.2 (1229.1–1993.2) 1716.7 (1338.0–2180.3) 2056.6 (1570.3–2648.9) < 0.001
Dietary total antioxidant capacity
 Vitamin C (mg VCE/d) 61.7 (27.0–141.3) 65.3 (31.7–134.3) 64.9 (35.3–121.4) < 0.001
 Retinol (mg VCE/d) 0.0 (0.0–0.1) 0.0 (0.0–0.1) 0.0 (0.0–0.1) < 0.001
 Vitamin E (mg VCE/d) 3.5 (2.2–5.3) 3.6 (2.3–5.5) 4.1 (2.7–6.1) < 0.001
 Carotenoids (mg VCE/d) 1.1 (0.5–2.7) 1.3 (0.5–3.1) 1.4 (0.7–3.2) < 0.001
 Flavonoids (mg VCE/d) 132.6 (54.3–307.0) 143.1 (64.4–306.2) 145.9 (75.6–277.8) 0.019
 TAC (mg VCE/d) 220.0 (100.0–470.1) 233.3 (118.2–464.3) 234.1 (129.9–417.4) < 0.001
Grain, bean, nuts, vegetables, & fruits
 Energy (Kcal/d) 1789.6 (1365.6–2357.2) 1799.7 (1386.4–2305.2) 1706.0 (1320.4–2177.9) < 0.001
Dietary total antioxidant capacity
 Vitamin C (mg VCE/d) 42.4 (22.2–82.3) 66.0 (33.4–127.1) 96.9 (47.5–194.5) < 0.001
 Retinol (mg VCE/d) 0.0 (0.0–0.1) 0.0 (0.0–0.1) 0.0 (0.0–0.1) 0.632
 Vitamin E (mg VCE/d) 3.4 (2.1–5.1) 3.6 (2.3–5.5) 4.3 (2.8–6.4) < 0.001
 Carotenoids (mg VCE/d) 0.9 (0.4–1.8) 1.2 (0.6–2.8) 2.0 (0.9–4.7) < 0.001
 Flavonoids (mg VCE/d) 82.6 (37.6–171.0) 143.2 (70.1–280.5) 225.1 (114.7–455.6) < 0.001
 TAC (mg VCE/d) 138.7 (73.4–267.2) 230.8 (125.3–426.2) 358.6 (198.0–677.2) < 0.001
  1. * The cutpoint of dietary pattern scores for T1 and T2 was − 0.3 and 0.5 in the “Rice & Kimchi” pattern, − 0.5 and 0.3 in the “Oil, sweets, fish & other vegetables” pattern, − 0.5 and 0.1 in the “Red meat & alcohol” pattern, and − 0.4 and 0.3 in the “Grain, bean, nuts, vegetables & fruits” pattern, respectively
  2. *P values were calculated by generalized linear model (GLM)
  3. VCE vitamin C equivalents, TAC total antioxidant capacity