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Table 2 General characteristics of the study participants according to the four dietary pattern scores

From: Dietary pattern, dietary total antioxidant capacity, and dyslipidemia in Korean adults

  Rice & Kimchi Oil, sweets, fish & other vegetables Red meat & alcohol Grain, bean, nuts, vegetables & fruits
N (%) T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3
Sex
 Male 3182 (32.2) 4234 (42.9) 4490 (45.5)*** 3503 (35.5) 4055 (41.1) 4348 (44.0)*** 3267 (33.1) 3536 (35.8) 5103 (51.7)*** 4795 (48.6) 3986 (40.4) 3125 (31.7)***
Age (yr)
 19–29 2091 (21.2) 932 (9.4) 369 (3.7)*** 880 (8.9) 1091 (11.1) 1421 (14.4)*** 897 (9.1) 941 (9.5) 1554 (15.7)*** 1381 (14.0) 1164 (11.8) 847 (8.6)***
 30–49 4512 (45.7) 4061 (41.1) 2580 (26.1) 2680 (27.1) 3843 (38.9) 4630 (46.9) 3441 (34.9) 3524 (35.7) 4188 (42.4) 4298 (43.5) 3646 (36.9) 3209 (32.5)
 50–64 2163 (21.9) 2883 (29.2) 3009 (30.5) 2903 (29.4) 2744 (27.8) 2408 (24.4) 2768 (28.0) 2742 (27.8) 2545 (25.8) 2170 (22.0) 2656 (26.9) 3229 (32.7)
 65+ 1108 (11.2) 1999 (20.2) 3917 (39.7) 3411 (34.6) 2197 (22.3) 1416 (14.3) 2768 (28.0) 2668 (27.0) 1588 (16.1) 2025 (20.5) 2409 (24.4) 2590 (26.2)
Household income1
 Low 1156 (11.9) 1742 (17.9) 3069 (31.8)*** 2749 (28.5) 1879 (19.4) 1339 (13.8)*** 2242 (23.1) 2178 (22.5) 1547 (15.9)*** 1992 (20.6) 2024 (20.9) 1951 (20.1)***
 Middle-low 2254 (23.2) 2445 (25.1) 2679 (27.8) 2560 (26.5) 2496 (25.7) 2322 (23.9) 2529 (26.1) 2423 (25.0) 2426 (24.9) 2551 (26.3) 2510 (25.9) 2317 (23.8)
 Middle-high 2992 (30.8) 2790 (28.7) 2073 (21.5) 2272 (23.5) 2632 (27.1) 2951 (30.3) 2544 (26.3) 2485 (25.7) 2826 (29.0) 2695 (27.8) 2612 (26.9) 2548 (26.2)
 High 3319 (34.1) 2759 (28.3) 1825 (18.9) 2080 (21.5) 2699 (27.8) 3124 (32.1) 2373 (24.5) 2595 (26.8) 2935 (30.2) 2446 (25.3) 2556 (26.4) 2901 (29.9)
Education
  ≤ Elementary school 1200 (12.3) 2391 (24.6) 4500 (46.5)*** 3916 (40.4) 2553 (26.2) 1622 (16.7)*** 3125 (32.2) 3045 (31.3) 1921 (19.8)*** 2348 (24.2) 2860 (29.5) 2883 (29.6)***
 Middle school 796 (8.2) 1152 (11.8) 1350 (14.0) 1225 (12.6) 1132 (11.6) 941 (9.7) 1135 (11.7) 1098 (11.3) 1065 (11.0) 1041 (10.7) 1069 (11.0) 1188 (12.2)
 High school 3912 (40.2) 3418 (35.1) 2476 (25.6) 2733 (28.2) 3344 (34.4) 3729 (38.3) 3127 (32.2) 3026 (31.1) 3653 (37.6) 3588 (37.0) 3188 (32.8) 3030 (31.1)
  ≥ College 3829 (39.3) 2778 (28.5) 1350 (14.0) 1822 (18.8) 2701 (27.8) 3434 (35.3) 2323 (23.9) 2554 (26.3) 3080 (31.7) 2719 (28.0) 2592 (26.7) 2646 (27.2)
Regular alcohol consumption2
 Yes 4891 (50.4) 5248 (54.0) 4750 (49.0)*** 4235 (43.7) 5166 (53.2) 5488 (56.5)*** 3952 (40.7) 4352 (44.8) 6585 (67.9)*** 5745 (59.4) 4971 (51.2) 4173 (42.9)***
Current smoking3
 Yes 2116 (21.7) 2800 (28.8) 3061 (31.6)*** 2333 (24.1) 2656 (27.3) 2988 (30.7)*** 2236 (23.0) 2261 (23.2) 3480 (35.8)*** 3681 (38.0) 2518 (25.9) 1778 (18.2)***
Physical activity4
 Yes 1072 (11.0) 1122 (11.6) 1172 (12.1) 1187 (12.3) 1162 (12.0) 1017 (10.5)** 1111 (11.5) 1106 (11.4) 1149 (11.8) 1078 (11.1) 1117 (11.5) 1171 (12.0)
Obesity (Body Mass Index ≥25 kg/m2) 2773 (28.2) 3184 (32.4) 3311 (33.7)*** 3073 (31.3) 3045 (31.0) 3150 (32.0) 3128 (31.8) 3029 (30.8) 3111 (31.6) 3102 (31.6) 3049 (31.0) 3117 (31.7)**
Blood lipid profile (Mean ± SD)
 Total cholesterol 186.9 ± 35.8 188.7 ± 36.1 190.1 ± 37.2*** 189.4 ± 37.3 188.1 ± 36.1 188.2 ± 35.7* 189.7 ± 36.7 188.3 ± 36.4 187.7 ± 35.9*** 189.1 ± 36.4 188.1 ± 36.1 188.5 ± 36.6
 HDL cholesterol 53.4 ± 13.1 51.3 ± 12.7 49.5 ± 12.5*** 50.8 ± 12.8 51.8 ± 13.0 51.6 ± 12.7*** 51.0 ± 12.8 50.9 ± 12.7 52.4 ± 13.0*** 51.7 ± 12.9 51.2 ± 12.8 51.4 ± 12.9
 Triglyceride 117.4 ± 88.7 133.2 ± 107.4 142.4 ± 103.0*** 136.8 ± 108.5 129.1 ± 95.8 127.2 ± 96.7*** 128.8 ± 94.2 127.5 ± 92.5 136.8 ± 113.4*** 137.4 ± 114.2 129.8 ± 96.5 125.9 ± 88.9***
  1. * The cutpoint of dietary pattern scores for T1 and T2 was −0.3 and 0.5 in the “Rice & Kimchi” pattern, −0.5 and 0.3 in the “Oil, sweets, fish & other vegetables” pattern, −0.5 and 0.1 in the “Red meat & alcohol” pattern, and − 0.4 and 0.3 in the “Grain, bean, nuts, vegetables & fruits” pattern, respectively
  2. * P values were calculated by chi-square test except for blood lipid profile; P values for blood lipid profile were calculated by generalized linear model (GLM) * P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001
  3. 1 Household income: low (first quartile), middle-low (second quartile), middle-high (third quartile), high (fourth quartile)
  4. 2 Regular alcohol consumption: ‘yes’ meant drank more than once a month over the past year
  5. 3 Current smoking: ‘yes’ meant smoked > 100 cigarettes over lifetime and still smoking
  6. 4 Physical activity: ‘active’ meant performed moderate-intensity physical activity which requires a moderate amount of effort and causes slightly rapid breathing for ≥30 min once for ≥5 days a week
  7. 1–4 Number of missing values was 521, 472, 519, 461, and 510 for household income, education level, regular alcohol consumption, current smoking status, and physical activity, respectively