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Table 2 Description of the Paleo diet, control diet and methodology of evaluation of diets

From: Influence of Paleolithic diet on anthropometric markers in chronic diseases: systematic review and meta-analysis

  Paleo diet Control diet Evaluation of dietary intake
Boers et al., 2014 [30] Centesimal composition: not informed.
Included: fish, lean meat, eggs, nuts, fruits, vegetables (dark green and cruciferous) and roots.
Excluded: cereals, dairy products, legumes, salt, sugar and refined fat.
Centesimal composition: not informed.
Included: according to Guidelines for a healthy diet of the Dutch Health Council.
Daily food record with telephone contact every other day.
Boraxbekk et al., 2015 [26] Centesimal composition:
Energy (Kcal):1.698 (235)
Protein (%): 24 (2)
Lipid (%): 44 (4)
Carbohydrate (%): 28 (3)
Included: fish, lean meat, eggs, nuts, fruits.
Excluded: not informed.
Centesimal composition:
Energy (Kcal): 1.676 (364)
Protein (%): 19 (1)
Lipid (%): 30 (6)
Carbohydrate (%): 45 (6)
Included: according to Nordic Nutrition Recommendations with low-fat dairy products and high-fiber products.
Excluded: not informed.
Food record for 4 days, at the beginning and at 6 months of intervention.
Genoni et al., 2016 [41] Centesimal composition:
Energy (Kcal): 5915 (1452)
Protein (%): 26.8 (7.2)
Lipid (%): 39.8 (9.6)
Carbohydrate (%): 27.8 (8.05)
Included: fish, lean meat, eggs, nuts, fruits and vegetables.
Excluded: cereals, grains, dairy products, legumes and potatoes.
Centesimal composition:
Energy (Kcal): 6657 (1725)
Protein (%): 21.7 (5.6)
Lipid (%): 32.6 (7.3)
Carbohydrate (%): 40.6 (9.4)
Included: five food groups according to Australian dietary recommendations; higher intake of vegetables, fruits and whole products; consumption of low-fat dairy products; Reduced foods: fat, cakes, cookies, sugary drinks and sweets.
Food record for 3 days (2 days per week and one weekend day) before starting the intervention and at days 26–28 after the intervention.
Jonsson et al., 2009 [37] Centesimal composition:
Energy (Kcal):1445 (367)
Protein (%): 24 (3)
Lipid (%): 39 (5)
Carbohydrate (%): 32 (7)
Included: fish, lean meat, eggs, nuts, fruits, vegetables (dark green, cruciferous), roots, canola oil, olive oil and wine.
Excluded: grains, bakery products, dairy products, legumes, salt, sugar, sugary drinks, refined fat, and beer.
Centesimal composition:
Energy (Kcal):1456 (312)
Protein (%): 20 (4)
Lipid (%): 34 (6)
Carbohydrate (%): 42 (7)
Included: fruits, vegetables, whole bread and other whole grains, and legumes.
Reduced foods: total fat and salt.
Food record for four consecutive days (including a weekend day), beginning sex weeks after the start of intervention.
Lindeberg et al., 2007 [40] Centesimal composition:
Energy (Kcal): 1344 (521)
Protein (%):27.9 (6.8)
Lipid (%):26.9 (6.4)
Carbohydrate (%):40.2 (8.3)
Included: fish, lean meat, eggs, nuts, fruits and vegetables.
Excluded: grains, dairy products, salt, sugar and refined fat.
Centesimal composition:
Energy (Kcal):1795 (306)
Protein (%): 20.5 (3.6)
Lipid (%): 24.7 (4.3)
Carbohydrate (%):51.7 (5.3)
Included: according to the Mediterranean Diet, based on fish, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, and refined fats, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and alpha-linolenic acid.
Food registration during four consecutive days (including a weekend day), beginning 15 ± 5 days after the start of intervention.
Otten et al., 2016 [23] Centesimal composition: not informed.
Included: fish, seafood, lean meat, eggs, nuts, fruits and vegetables
Excluded: cereals, dairy products, legumes, salt and sugar.
Centesimal composition: not informed.
Included: according to Nordic Nutrition Recommendations with increased intake of fish, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, meat. Dairy products should be low in fat.
Food records during 4 days (3 days a week and one weekend) performed two to 4 days after the start of intervention, monthly up to 6 months and then, at nine, 12, 18 and 24 months.
Pastore et al., 2015 [14] Centesimal composition:
Women:
Energy (Kcal): women 1719.7 (262.7); men 2101.8 (382.2)
Protein (%): 37
Lipid (%):40
Carbohydrate (%): 23
Included: lean meat, eggs, nuts, fruits and vegetables.
Excluded: grains, dairy products and legumes.
Centesimal composition:
Women:
Energy (Kcal): 2269 (310.5)
Protein (%): 17
Lipid (%): 23
Carbohydrate (%): 60
Men:
Energy (Kcal): 2866.1 (262.7)
Protein (%):21
Lipid (%):23
Carbohydrate (%):56
Included: diet rich in fruits and vegetables, whole grains with little or no salt and fish at least twice a week.
Reduced food: sugary foods and drinks.
From a series of ten 24-h reminders recorded at the beginning and during each phase of the diet.
Fontes-Vilalba et al., [42] Centesimal composition: not informed.
Included: lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables (leafy and cruciferous), eggs and nuts.
Excluded: dairy, grains, legumes, refined fats, sugar, sweets, soft drinks, beer and salt.
Centesimal composition: not informed.
Included: higher intake of vegetables, fruits, roots, whole bread and other whole grains and legumes.
Reduced food: total fat, and more unsaturated fat and salt.
Not informed.
Stomby et al., [27] Centesimal composition: not informed.
Included: fish, lean meat, eggs, nuts, fruits, vegetables and roots.
Excluded: not informed.
Centesimal composition: not informed.
Included: according to Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, low-fat dairy products and high-fiber products.
Food registration during 4 days (3 days a week and one weekend) performed two to 4 days after the start of intervention, monthly up to 6 months and then at nine, 12, 18 and 24 months.
Blomquist C, et al. 2017 [43] Centesimal composition: not informed.
Included: lean meat, fish, eggs, vegetables, fruits, red fruits, nuts, avocados and oils.
Excluded: dairy products, cereals, added salt, refined fats and sugar.
Centesimal composition: not informed.
Included: according to Nordic Nutrition Recommendations with meat, fish, vegetables, fruits and low-fat dairy products.
Excluded: not informed.
Estimated food records during 4 days at baseline, 6 months and 24 months.
Blomquist C, et al. 2018 [44] Centesimal composition: Not informed.
Included: lean meat, fish, eggs, vegetables, fruits, nuts, avocado, rapeseed oil and olive oil.
Excluded: dairy, cereal, salt, refined fat and refined sugar.
Centesimal composition: Not informed.
Included: according to Nordic Nutrition Recommendations with meat, fish, vegetables, fruits and low-fat dairy products.
Excluded: not informed.
Not informed.