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Table 1 Articles included in the review according to author, year of publication, type of study, characteristics of populations undergoing interventions, evaluated outcomes and analysis of quality

From: Influence of Paleolithic diet on anthropometric markers in chronic diseases: systematic review and meta-analysis

Variables Author/Year Population characteristics Participants Men/Women
Paleolithic diet
Participants Men/Women
Control diet
Mean age (years)
Paleolithic diet
Mean age (years)
Control diet
Duration
(Months)
Evaluated outcomes Secondary outcome evaluated Quality of the study (GRADE)
Ahlgren et al., [22] Overweight and obese women 0/6 0/6 64.5 70.6 24 months Experiments on dietary change Qualitative analysis b
Otten et al., 2016 [23] Obese postmenopausal women 0/25 0/16 61 ± 6 66 ± 2 24 months Changes in liver fat and insulin sensitivity Weight, BMI and WC c
Pastore et al., 2015 [14] Hypercholesterolemic patients 10/10 10/10 53 ± 7 53 ± 7 4 months Dietary intake and plasma lipids Weight c
Masharani et al., 2015 [24] Type 2 diabetes 14 10 58 ± 8 56 ± 13 3 months Metabolic and physiological effects of diet Biochemical markers b
Bligh et al., 2015 [25] Healthy population 24/0 27.9 ± 13.2 27.5 ± 12.68 6 months Acute effects of meal on glycaemia, hormonal responses in the intestine and regulation of appetite Hormones a
Boraxbekk et al., 2015 [26] Overweight and obese postmenopausal women 0/9 0/11 61.1 ± 1.6 61.6 ± 1.7 6 months Improvement of episodic memory performance and change of associated functional brain responses Weight, BMI and WC c
Stomby et al., [27] Overweight and obese women 0/27 0/22 24 months Normalization of glucocorticoid metabolism Weight, BMI and WC c
Bisht et al., 2014 [28] Multiple sclerosis patients 01/08 52.4 ± 4.1 12 months Effect on perceived fatigue Fatigue markers a
Hanmarstrom et al., [29] Overweight middle-aged women 0/8 57.5 ± 11 24 months Barriers and facilitators for weight loss Qualitative analysis a
Boers et al., 2014 [30] Metabolic syndrome patients 18 16 52 ± 10.2 55 ± 9 2 weeks Alteration of metabolic syndrome characteristics Weight, BMI and WC c
Melberg et al., [31] Obese postmenopausal women 0/35 0/35 59.9 ± 5.5 60.3 ± 5.9 24 months Effect of the Paleolithic diet in obese women Weight, BMI and WC only from the Paleolithic group a
Frassetto et al., 2013 [32] Type 2 diabetes patients 06/07 08/05 56 ± 12 56 ± 12 3 weeks Effect on total acid production BMI only from the Paleolithic group b
Jonsson et al., 2013 [33] Type 2 diabetes patients 10/03 3 months Effect on satiety Satiety markers a
Ryberg et al., 2013 [34] Obese menopausal women 0/10 0/10 1 month and 1 week Effect on liver fat and insulin resistance Weight, BMI and WC only of the Paleolithic group b
Myhill e al., 2013 [35] Myalgic encephalomyelitis patients 138 23.5 ± .5 Mitochondrial dysfunction Markers of mitochondrial function a
Jonsson et al., 2010 [36] Coronary syndrome patients 14/0 15/0 12 weeks Effect on satiety Markers of satiety a
Jonsson et al., 2009 [37] Type 2 diabetes patients 01/06 04/02 66 ± 6 63 ± 6 6 months Improvement of glycemic control in association with several cardiovascular risk factors Weight, BMI and WC b
Frassetto et al., 2009 [38] Healthy population in physical activity 06/03 06/03 38 ± 12 38 ± 12 3 weeks Effect on glycemic control and association with cardiovascular risk factors BMI only from the Paleolithic group b
Baumgartner et al., 2009 [39] Healthy population in physical activity 05/05 25 ± 21 4 weeks Effect on oral microbiota and clinical data Present bacteria a
Osterdahl et al., [16] Healthy population 08/09 30 ± 10 3 weeks Effect of the Paleolithic diet on the reduction of cardiovascular risk Weight, BMI and WC a
Lindeberg et al., 2007 [40] Ischemic heart disease patients 14/0 15/0 65 ± 10 57 ± 7 12 weeks Effect of glucose tolerance Weight and WC c
Smith et al., 2014 [15] Healthy population 24/20 31.2 ± 0.3 2 months and 2 weeks Effects on serum lipids Weight a
Genoni et al., 2016 [41] Healthy women 0/22 0/17 47 ± 13 26.8 ± 7.2 1 months Metabolic and cardiovascular effects Weight and WC c
Fontes-Vilalba et al., [42] Type 2 diabetes patients 06/01 04/02 66 ± 6 63 ± 6 6 months Effects on adipokines, glucagon, incretins and ghrelin Weight b
Blomquist C, et al. 2017 [43] Healthy postmenopausal women 0/35 0/35 60 + 5.6 61 + 7 24 months Android fat, weight, adipose gene expression, toll-like receptor 4, macrophage migration, Serum interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor a levels and High-sensitivity C-reactive protein Weight b
Blomquist C, et al. 2018 [44] Postmenopausal women with overweight 0/33 0/25 60 ± 5.5 62 ± 5.7 6 months insulin sensitivity, decreased circulating triglycerides, gene expressions of CD36, fatty acid synthase and diglyceride acyltransferase 2 BMI and Body weight b
  1. BMI Body Mass Index
  2. WC Waist Circumference
  3. GRADE quality level [20]: avery low; b low; c moderate