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Table 3 AHEI-2010 components and total scores of U.S. adults (Age ≥ 20 years) by Diabetes Status

From: Healthy eating index versus alternate healthy index in relation to diabetes status and health markers in U.S. adults: NHANES 2007–2010

Component Criteria Maximum Score value Diabetes Status ap-value
Minimum score Maximum score   Nondiabetes (n = 1436) Prediabetes (n = 1905) Diabetes (n = 715)
LSM ± SE LSM ± SE LSM ± SE
Whole fruit 0 ≥4 servings/d 10 2.8 ± 0.1 3.0 ± 0.1 2.9 ± 0.2 0.6109
Total vegetables 0 ≥2.5 cups/d 10 2.6 ± 0.1 2.8 ± 0.1 2.9 ± 0.2 0.2947
Whole grains 0 Women: 75 g/d
Men: 90 g/d
10 2.9 ± 0.1 2.9 ± 0.2 3.3 ± 0.2 0.3386
Sugar-sweetened Beverages and fruit juice ≥8 oz./d 0 10 2.4 ± 0.2 2.5 ± 0.1 3.3 ± 0.2 0.0011
Nuts and legumes 0 ≥1 oz./d 10 2.5 ± 0.2 2.4 ± 0.1 2.4 ± 0.2 0.8478
Red and/or Processed
Meats
≥1.5 servings/d 0 10 6.5 ± 0.2 6.0 ± 0.1 5.9 ± 0.2 0.0 318
Long-chain (ω-3) fats (EPA + DHA) 0 250 mg/d 10 2.6 ± 0.1 2.8 ± 0.1 2.3 ± 0.2 0.0937
PUFAs ≤2% of energy ≥10% of energy 10 6.9 ± 0.05 6.9 ± 0.05 7.2 ± 0.1 0.0772
bAlcohol Men: ≥3.5 drinks/d
Women: ≥2.5 drinks/d
Men: 0.5–2.0 drinks/d
Women: 0.5–1.5 drinks/d
10 3.4 ± 0.09 3.3 ± 0.08 2.8 ± 0.07 <.0001
cSodium Highest Decile Lowest Decile 10 5.2 ± 0.1 5.6 ± 0.1 6.1 ± 0.2 0.0017
Total AHEI-2010 score    100 37.9 ± 0.7 38.3 ± 0.5 39.1 ± 0.7 0.4299
  1. Values are least square means ± standard error of the mean (SE)
  2. All scoring criteria were calculated based on actual intake of participants rather than absolute standards. Trans fat component was omitted from the AHEI-2010 scoring because it is unavailable in the NHANES dietary files. For sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit juices, red and/or processed meat, and sodium, a higher score corresponds to lower intake
  3. Abbreviations: AHEI-2010 Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010, LSM least square means, DHA docosahexaenoic acid, EPA eicosapentaenoic acid, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acid
  4. aBonferroni correction (< 0.05/11 AHEI-2010 components), P < 0.005
  5. bAlcoholic drinkers were assigned the highest score to moderate, and lowest score to heavy consumers. Nondrinkers received a score of 2.5
  6. cConsumption was based on the actual intake distribution of participants in the sample. The fasting subsample weight was used to obtain representative percentiles for sodium intake in the sample
  7. Bold data indicate statistically different p < 0.05