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Table 1 Sociodemographic Characteristics of U.S. adults (Age ≥ 20 years) by Diabetes Status

From: Healthy eating index versus alternate healthy index in relation to diabetes status and health markers in U.S. adults: NHANES 2007–2010

Characteristic (n) aDiabetes Status p trend
Nondiabetes (n = 1436) Prediabetes (n = 1905) Diabetes (n = 715)
4056 n % n % n %
Age         <.0001
 20–39   731 53.2 448 26.7 34 5.1  
 40–59   459 34.9 704 43.3 219 38.2  
 60–79   199 9.9 614 24.9 388 46.5  
 80+   47 1.9 139 5.1 74 10.1  
Sex 4056        <.0001
 Male   554 40.4 997 54.6 375 52.9  
 Female   882 59.6 908 45.4 340 47.1  
Race/Ethnicity 4056        0.0049
 Mexican American   255 7.8 338 8.0 136 8.2  
 Non-Hispanic White   720 71.2 978 72.0 309 65.1  
 Non-Hispanic Black   221 9.5 310 10.3 163 15.7  
 Other   240 11.4 279 9.7 107 10.9  
Education Level 4050        <.0001
 Less than high school   302 12.9 536 19.1 263 25.1  
 High School diploma   311 20.2 459 25.1 188 29.1  
 Some College education   428 30.7 501 27.6 172 26.8  
 College Graduate or Above   395 36.1 405 28.2 90 18.9  
Marital Status 4055        <.0001
 Current Married   832 62.0 1217 68.1 439 65.2  
 Former Married   253 13.4 462 19.3 218 26.9  
 Never Married   351 24.6 226 12.5 57 7.9  
Smoking Status 4056        <.0001
 Nonsmoker   876 60.6 1008 52.9 353 49.5  
 Current smoker   282 18.9 375 19.2 108 13.5  
 Former smoker   278 20.4 522 27.9 254 36.9  
bPhysical Activity 4056        <.0001
 None   654 38.6 1020 47.2 489 63.9  
 Insufficient   230 17.2 293 18.0 94 15.5  
 Sufficient   552 44.1 592 34.8 132 20.6  
Poverty-to-Income Ratio 4056        <.0001
  < 1.30   494 23.0 705 25.7 259 25.2  
 1.30–3.49   498 32.9 649 33.8 300 43.6  
  ≥ 3.50   444 44.1 551 40.5 156 31.2  
Self-Reported Health 4055        <.0001
 Excellent   280 23.3 224 14.1 32 6.0  
 Very Good   457 37.4 535 31.9 97 15.6  
 Good   481 29.2 719 37.1 242 36.9  
 Fair   184 8.8 351 13.9 262 32.3  
 Poor   34 1.4 75 3.0 82 9.2  
Covered by Health Insurance 4052        0.0031
 Yes   1039 80.1 1455 82.1 604 88.1  
 No   396 19.9 447 17.9 111 11.9  
Adult Food Security Category 4024        0.2948
 Full   1045 82.3 1375 79.8 544 83.8  
 Marginal   162 7.5 189 7.9 64 6.5  
 Low   129 6.5 202 7.6 60 5.9  
 Very Low   86 3.7 123 4.7 45 3.8  
  1. Values are column percents n (%) for categorical variables by diabetes status. Statistical differences were assessed using design-based Rao-Scott F adjusted Χ2 statistic
  2. Bolded values are significantly different p < 0.01
  3. aDiabetes status was defined from self-report of participants in the diabetes questionnaire and from the laboratory biomarkers using the cut-offs based on the 2014 Standards of Medical Care from the American Diabetes Association (ADA) for diabetes diagnosis
  4. bPhysical Activity guidelines were defined for participants meeting (≥150 min/week of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA]) or not meeting MVPA based on the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans