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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants, by ethnic origin (n = 4717)

From: Socioeconomic and ethnic differences in the relation between dietary costs and dietary quality: the HELIUS study

  Ethnic origin All (n = 4717)
Dutch (n = 1429) South-Asian Surinamese (n = 1003) African Surinamese (n = 980) Moroccan (n = 717) Turkish (n = 588)
Age (years) 48.2 (13.5) 47.6 (12.2) 49.7 (11.2) 41.1 (12.0) 41.7 (11.0) 46.5 (12.6)
Men (n (%) of participants) 635 (44.2%) 408 (40.7%) 314 (32.0%) 270 (37.7%) 277 (47.1%) 1904 (40.4%)
N (%) of participants with lowest educational level 238 (16.7%) 463 (46.2%) 362 (36.9%) 333 (46.4%) 286 (48.6%) 1682 (35.7%)
N (%) of participants with medium education level 306 (21.4%) 281 (28.0%) 337 (34.4%) 244 (34.0%) 175 (29.8%) 1343 (28.5%)
N (%) of participants with highest education level 885 (61.9%) 259 (25.8%) 281 (28.7%) 140 (19.5%) 127 (21.6%) 1692 (35.9%)
Physical activity (total MET-minutes/week, median (IQR)) 7512 (5510; 9818) 6372 (4124; 9375) 6960 (4440; 10,883) 5550 (3210; 8415) 5430 (2527; 8666) 6654 (4230–9502)
Current smoker (n (%) of participants) 325 (22.7%) 235 (23.4%) 224 (22.9%) 76 (10.6%) 167 (28.4%) 1027 (21.8%)
Daily dietary costs (€/day) 5.64 (1.48) 5.00 (1.78) 5.16 (1.88) 4.78 (1.73) 5.91 (2.05) 5.31 (1.79)
Energy adjusted dietary costs (€/2000 kcal) 5.31 (1.15) 5.19 (1.25) 5.24 (1.57) 4.79 (1.34) 5.64 (1.53) 5.23 (1.37)
DHD15-index, crude mean 78.2 (16.4) 83.4 (16.9) 79.3 (16.1) 86.5 (16.1) 84.4 (15.7) 81.5 (16.6)
High diet quality (% top quintile) 12.9% 24.7% 16.1% 31.7% 22.1% 20.1%
DHD15-index, adjusted mean (95% CI)a 76.8 (75.9; 77.6) 83.8 (82.8; 84.7) 77.8 (76.9; 78.8) 88.1 (86.9; 89.2) 87.5 (86.3; 88.8)
  1. Data are mean (standard deviation) unless otherwise stated
  2. IQR Inter quartile range, DHD Dutch Healthy Diet, CI Confidence Interval, MET metabolic equivalent of task
  3. aMeans and 95% CIs were derived from a General Linear Model Univariate procedure with estimated marginal means and are adjusted for age, sex, education, energy intake, smoking, physical activity