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Table 4 Diet quality gender inequalities by geographic and socioeconomic variables, 29–40 y. in Greater Tunis

From: Gender inequalities in diet quality and their socioeconomic patterning in a nutrition transition context in the Middle East and North Africa: a cross-sectional study in Tunisia

   Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) > 60
Women Men Women Men Women vs. men Women Men Women vs. men
n n Meana SEMb Meana SEMb Crude Diff.c 95% CId Adjusted Diff.e 95% CId %f %f Crude ORg 95% CIh Adjusted ORi 95% CIh
Area        Pj = 0.25 Pj = 0.30    Pj = 0.17 Pj = 0.079
 Urban 1437 774 58.5 0.3 60.4 0.4 −1.9 −2.7, − 1.0 −1.7 −2.9, −0.6 44.2 55.3 0.6 0.5, 0.8 0.7 0.5, 0.9
 Rural 214 120 59.5 0.5 60.4 0.7 −1.0 −2.3, 0.3 −0.8 −2.6, 1.0 57.0 60.0 0.9 0.6, 1.4 1.0 0.6, 1.7
Governorates        Pj = 0.81 Pj = 0.61    Pj = 0.76 Pj = 0.66
 Tunis 680 360 58.8 0.4 60.1 0.6 −1.3 −2.6, −0.1 − 1.0 −2.4, 0.5 44.7 52.4 0.7 0.5, 1.0 0.8 0.6, 1.2
 Ariana 365 208 57.6 0.9 59.8 0.6 −2.2 −4.3, −0.1 − 2.1 − 4.3, 0.0 41.4 56.1 0.6 0.4, 0.8 0.6 0.4, 1.0
 Ben Arous 343 210 58.7 0.6 60.7 0.6 −2.0 −3.5, −0.5 −1.9 −3.4, −0.5 46.3 58.1 0.6 0.4, 0.9 0.6 0.4, 1.0
 Manouba 263 116 59.2 0.7 61.4 0.8 −2.2 −4.1, −0.3 − 2.3 −4.5, −0.1 50.0 60.3 0.7 0.4, 1.0 0.7 0.4, 1.0
Age (years)        P j = 0.048 Pj = 0.11    Pj = 0.18 Pj = 0.51
 20–29 497 248 56.4 0.5 59.3 0.6 −2.9 −4.5, −1.3 − 2.2 −4.2, −0.2 35.1 51.3 0.5 0.4, 0.7 0.6 0.4, 1.1
 30–39 486 261 59.4 0.4 61.1 0.5 −1.6 −2.6, −0.6 −2.0 −3.4, −0.6 50.7 58.5 0.7 0.6, 0.9 0.7 0.5, 1.0
 40–49 668 385 60.5 0.3 61.1 0.4 −0.6 −1.7, 0.4 −0.4 −2.0, 1.2 52.7 59.0 0.8 0.6, 1.0 0.9 0.6, 1.3
Marital status        Pj = 0.058 Pj = 0.98    Pj = 0.066 Pj = 0.74
 Married 1057 607 59.9 0.3 61.1 0.3 −1.3 −2.0, −0.5 − 1.7 −3.2, − 0.1 52.1 59.3 0.7 0.6, 0.9 0.7 0.5, 1.1
 Other 594 287 56.5 0.5 59.3 0.6 −2.8 −4.3, −1.3 −1.7 −3.2, −0.2 34.6 50.9 0.5 0.4, 0.7 0.7 0.4, 1.0
Household size        Pj = 0.30 Pj = 0.13    Pj = 0.39 Pj = 0.28
 1–3 234 147 59.5 0.4 61.2 0.7 −1.7 −2.9, −0.4 − 1.0 −2.4, 0.4 49.8 57.9 0.7 0.5, 1.0 0.9 0.6, 1.3
 4–5 900 508 59.2 0.3 60.5 0.4 −1.3 −2.1, −0.5 − 1.1 −2.1, − 0.1 48.2 56.1 0.7 0.6, 0.9 0.8 0.6, 1.3
 6 or more 517 239 57.6 0.5 60.0 0.6 −2.4 −3.9, −0.9 − 2.4 −4.1, − 0.8 40.6 54.7 0.6 0.4, 0.8 0.6 0.4, 0.9
Education        Pj = 0.0006 Pj = 0.12    Pj = 0.0042 Pj = 0.16
 No formal schooling 179 40 60.1 0.6 63.0 1.4 −2.9 −5.8, −0.1 −3.3 −6.4, − 0.2 52.1 78.0 0.3 0.1, 0.9 0.3 0.1, 0.9
 Primary school 601 316 59.8 0.4 60.4 0.5 −0.5 −1.8, 0.7 −0.9 −2.5, 0.8 52.0 57.4 0.8 0.6, 1.1 0.8 0.5, 1.2
 Secondary 567 377 58.0 0.4 59.4 0.5 −1.4 −2.6, −0.2 −1.1 −2.4, 0.3 42.2 48.9 0.8 0.6, 1.0 0.9 0.6, 1.2
 University 304 161 56.9 0.7 62.5 0.8 −5.6 −7.5, −3.7 −3.7 −5.9, −1.5 36.9 66.6 0.3 0.2, 0.5 0.5 0.3, 0.9
Professional activity        Pj = 0.26 Pj = 0.90    Pj = 0.11 Pj = 0.80
 Upper/intermediate 169 264 58.4 0.9 61.0 0.6 −2.6 −4.5, −0.7 −1.0 −2.9, 0.9 42.5 56.3 0.6 0.3, 1.0 0.7 0.4, 1.3
 Employee/worker 374 504 57.9 0.5 60.1 0.4 −2.2 −3.7, −0.7 −1.9 −3.3, − 0.5 44.6 56.3 0.6 0.4, 0.9 0.7 0.4, 1.0
 Not working/retired 934 61 59.6 0.3 60.3 0.9 −0.7 −2.7, 1.3 −1.7 −3.8, 0.3 49.9 47.6 1.1 0.6, 1.9 0.9 0.5, 1.6
 Student 174 65 55.9 0.8 60.0 1.4 −4.1 −7.3, −0.9 −1.8 −5.4, 1.8 30.3 56.3 0.3 0.2, 0.7 0.5 0.2, 1.3
Household welfare proxy        Pj = 0.12 Pj = 0.47    Pj = 0.31 Pj = 0.68
 Lower tertile 566 288 58.8 0.4 60.1 0.4 −1.3 −2.5, −0.2 −1.5 −3.0, −0.1 47.0 55.3 0.7 0.5, 1.0 0.7 0.5, 1.0
 Intermediate tertile 542 312 59.1 0.4 60.2 0.6 −1.2 −2.5, 0.2 −1.2 −3.0, 0.6 48.5 55.7 0.8 0.5, 1.1 0.8 0.5, 1.3
 Upper tertile 543 294 57.8 0.5 60.7 0.6 −2.9 −4.3, −1.5 − 2.3 −3.7, −0.8 39.9 56.1 0.5 0.4, 0.8 0.6 0.4, 0.9
  1. aCrude weighted mean (accounting for unequal probabilities of selection and differential response rates)
  2. bSEM: standard error of the mean taking into account sampling design
  3. cCrude women vs. men difference of means within category of co-variable as in column 1
  4. dDiff. 95% confidence interval taking into account sampling design
  5. eAdjusted women vs. men difference of means within category of socio-demographic variable: multivariate model including all variables in first column, energy intake and interactions with gender
  6. fCrude weighted prevalence (accounting for unequal probabilities of selection and differential response rates)
  7. gCrude women vs. men (DQI-I > 60) prevalence odds-ratio (OR) within category of covariable as in column 1
  8. hOR 95% confidence interval taking into account sampling design
  9. iAdjusted women vs. men (DQI-I > 60) prevalence odds-ratio (OR) within category of socio-demographic variable: multivariate model including all variables in first column, energy intake and interactions with gender
  10. jCrude or adjusted P value for gender x variable interaction: null hypothesis of identical gender contrasts (difference of means or OR) in all categories of socio-demographic variable