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Table 3 Diet Quality Index-International and sub-scores overall and by gender, 20–49 y. in Greater Tunis

From: Gender inequalities in diet quality and their socioeconomic patterning in a nutrition transition context in the Middle East and North Africa: a cross-sectional study in Tunisia

  All
(n = 2545)
Women
(n = 1651)
Men
(n = 894)
Women vs. Men
Meana SEMb Meana SEMb Meana SEMb Diff.c 95% CId Pe
Diet Quality Index-International (/100) 59.5 0.3 58.6 0.3 60.4 0.3 − 1.8 − 2.6, − 1.0 <0.0001
Variety score (/20) 11.1 0.1 10.1 0.1 12.1 0.2 −2.0 − 2.3, − 1.6 <0.0001
 Overall food group variety 9.4 0.1 8.8 0.1 10.0 0.1 −1.3 − 1.5, − 1.0 <0.0001
 Within-group variety for protein source 1.7 0.0 1.4 0.1 2.1 0.1 −0.7 − 0.9, − 0.6 <0.0001
Adequacy score (/40) 31.6 0.1 30.8 0.1 32.5 0.1 −1.8 −2.0, − 1.5 <0.0001
 Grain group 4.7 0.0 4.7 0.1 4.7 0.1 0.0 −0.1, 0.1 0.44
 Fruit group 1.9 0.1 2.1 0.1 1.8 0.1 + 0.3 0.2, 0.5 0.0003
 Vegetable group 2.7 0.0 2.7 0.1 2.7 0.1 + 0.0 −0.1, 0.1 0.85
 Dietary fibers 4.8 0.0 4.7 0.1 4.8 0.1 −0.1 −0.1, 0.0 0.0032
 Protein 5.0 0.0 5.0 0.1 5.0 0.1 + 0.0 −0.1, 0.1 0.29
 Iron 4.2 0.0 3.4 0.1 5.0 0.1 −1.6 − 1.7, − 1.6 <0.0001
 Calcium 3.4 0.0 3.2 0.1 3.6 0.1 −0.4 −0.5, − 0.3 <0.0001
 Vitamin C 5.0 0.0 5.0 0.1 5.0 0.1 + 0.0 −0.1, 0.1 0.73
Moderation score (/30) 13.2 0.1 14.2 0.2 12.3 0.2 + 1.8 1.4, 2.2 <0.0001
 Total fat 2.1 0.1 2.2 0.1 2.1 0.1 + 0.1 −0.1, 0.2 0.39
 Saturated fat 4.6 0.1 4.5 0.1 4.6 0.1 −0.1 −0.3, 0.1 0.28
 Cholesterol 5.0 0.1 5.4 0.1 4.7 0.1 + 0.7 0.5, 0.9 <0.0001
 Sodium 1.4 0.1 1.9 0.1 0.8 0.1 + 1.2 1.0, 1.3 <0.0001
 Empty calorie foods 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 + 0.0 −0.1, 0.1 0.42
Overall balance score (/10) 3.5 0.1 3.5 0.1 3.4 0.1 + 0.1 −0.2, 0.4 0.42
 Macronutrient ratio 2.6 0.1 2.7 0.1 2.6 0.1 + 0.1 −0.1, 0.3 0.58
 Fatty acid ratio 0.8 0.0 0.9 0.1 0.8 0.1 + 0.0 −0.1, 0.2 0.46
  1. aWeighted mean (accounting for unequal probabilities of selection and differential response rates)
  2. bSEM: standard error of the mean taking into account sampling design
  3. cWomen vs. Men difference of means (unadjusted)
  4. d95% confidence interval taking into account sampling design
  5. eP value for Women vs. Men difference. Diet quality as assessed by the DQ-I (Diet Quality Index-International) and sub-components (variety, adequacy, moderation and balance), derived from the 3-day prospective food record, overall and by gender, among 20-49 year old subjects in the Greater Tunis area, Tunisia